Adolf Eichmann: biography and crimes
Eichmann Adolf (nationality- German) was born in 1906, March 19, in Solingen. During the Second World War he was an employee of the Gestapo, lieutenant colonel of the SS. During his school years, many believed thatAdolf Eichmann is a Jew. After the war he was hiding in South America. However, Mossad agents tracked him down. He was abducted and taken to Israel.
Adolf Eichmann: photos, parents
Father was an accountant at the Electric Tram Company. In 1913 he was transferred from Solingen to Linz on the Danube (in Austria). Until 1924 he was a commercial director. For many years, Eichmann's father was a public presbyter in the evangelical church community of Linz. Twice he was married. Eichmann's mother died in 1916. In 1935, the future colonel of the SS married a peasant girl, Veronika Libl. In marriage with her, he became the father of 4 sons.
From an early ageAdolf Eichmannwas a member of the Society for Christian Youth. However, after a while, he became displeased with the leadership and left it.He joined the group "Grief" with the society "Young tourists", which was part of the Youth Union. He consisted in it until adulthood. As you know, many children in school years are teased. Hit by classmates andAdolf Eichmann. "Jew"- so he was called in school. It was connected with his appearance. He was short, had a" characteristic nose ", he had dark hair. Perhaps it was a prerequisite for choosing activities that subsequently ledAdolf Eichmann.
Jewish roots, meanwhile, he was absent. Until 4th grade, he went to primary school. It also previously studied and Hitler. Subsequently, Adolf Eichmann was enrolled in a real school. Here he also received education to the 4th grade. After graduation, at the age of 15, Eichmann entered the Higher School of Construction, Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering in Linz. Here he spent 4 semesters.
Adolf was not a diligent student, and his father sent him to his mine. Here the young man worked for about three months. After that, he was enrolled in the Upper Austrian company, where he studied electrical engineering for 2.5 years. In 1928vacancy traveling representative opened at the enterprise "Vacuum oil" I entered herAdolf Eichmann. A familyhelped a 22-year-old boy to get a job. A friend brought him to the military environment - Friedrich f. Schmidt He had connections in the Youth Union of Front-line Soldiers, most of whose members were monarchical.
Entry into the SS
By the beginning of the 30s. In the 20th century, nationalist sentiments intensified in Austria. Meetings of the NSDAP have become frequent. In the SS recruited people from the association of front-line soldiers, since its members were allowed to undergo shooting training. In 1932, on April 1, Adolf Eichmann joined the SS on the recommendation of E. Kaltenbrunner. In 1933, the company where he worked, translates it to Salzburg. Eichmann every Friday returned to Linz, where he served. In 1933, in mid-June, the Austrian Chancellor banned the activities of the National Socialist Party. Soon, Eichmann was fired from Vacuum Oil for his SS membership and left for Germany.
Upon arrival in Germany, Eichmann arrived at Andreas Bollek. He offered to become a member of the "Austrian Legion", located in Kloster-Lechfeld.Adolf EichmannHe was enrolled in the assault squad. Here he was trained mainly street fighting. Soon he became an assistant chief of staff at Passau SS marshall Major Carl f. Pichlya. From here, Eichmann began writing reports and letters to Germany. By this time he had already received the title of Untersharführer. In 1934, the headquarters was abolished, and Eichmann was transferred to the battalion in Dachau. He was here until 1934. During the same period, Adolf learned about the recruitment of people who had already served in the Security Council of Reichsführer Himmler. He writes a statement, which was soon granted. After being accepted into the Security Council, he is sent to do clerical work - to systematize the Freemason card file.
Further activities in SS
In 1935, Eichmann received a proposal to move to the recently organized department "Jews" at the General Directorate of the SD. He was instructed to issue a certificate on the book of T. Herzl. Subsequently, the document compiled by him acted as an official circular for official use in the SS. In 1936, Dieter Viscelini was appointed head of the department, where, apart from Eichmann, Theodor Dannecker also worked. The government of the Reich sought to solve the Jewish question as soon as possible.The department was assigned the task of ensuring the rapid forced emigration of people from Germany. In the same year of 1936, Eichmann was given the title of obersharführer, and a year later, Hauptsharführer. In 1938, he became Untersturmführer.
Organization of deportation
In 1938, Eichmann was transferred to the Vienna branch of the SD, where he was entrusted with solving the Jewish question. On his orders, a representative of the community, Dr. R. Levengerts, developed a plan for organizing the deportation of people. Soon, Eichmann achieved the establishment of an emigration institution in Vienna. After that, the paperwork and exit from the country were put on stream. In 1939, in April, Eichmann was transferred to Prague. Here he continued to organize the deportation. In early October of the same year, he was included in the RSHA (General Directorate for Imperial Security), and in December he was appointed to the post of head in sector IV B 4.
World War II
In 1941Adolf EichmannVisited Auschwitz. After that, he authorized the sending of people to death camps. Eichmann, by order of Heydrich, participated in the activities of the Weisen Conference of 1942, where they discussed measures for the final resolution of the Jewish question - the destruction of millions of citizens.He offered to immediately organize the expulsion of people to Eastern Europe. At the conference, it was decided to entrust Eichmann with the leadership of the operation. In the Gestapo, he was in a privileged position. Often orders were sent to him directly from Himmler, bypassing Muller and Kaltenbrunner. In 1944, in March, Eichmann became the leader of the sonderkommando. She organized sending people to Auschwitz. In August of the same year, Eichmann presented a report to Himmler, in which he reported on the extermination of 4 million Jews.
After the defeat of GermanyAdolf EichmannI could hide from the special services. However, he was arrested by the Americans. After the war intensifiednazi hunters. Adolf EichmannI could not hide my belonging to the SS. But he introduced himself to volunteer cavalry officers. Eichmann understood that he could be opened, and ran away from prison. Using the "rat path", he was able to issue a passport to a new name.
In 1950, becoming Ricardo Clement, Eichmann moved to Argentina. Here he enters the local division of Mercedes-Benz as an office clerk.After 2 years, Adolf arrives in Europe, marries his wife under his new name and takes the whole family to Argentina. In Buenos Aires, he lived until the 1960th.
In 1958, the CIA received information about the location of Eichmann and his new name. However, the security services classified information, fearing that the fugitive might report on the past to G. Globke, who at that time was the head of the secretary of Chancellor Adenauer.
Adolf Eichmann: the story of abduction
The operation was organized by the Mossad group. The abduction and removal of Eichmann to Israel from Argentina took place in 1960. It was an unofficial operation. Subsequently, Argentina charged Israel with violations of sovereignty. The illegality of the operation was justified by the unprecedented crimes of the fugitive. After all, during the Second World War, the genocide was directly responsibleAdolf Eichmann. Trialover him ended the imposition of a death sentence. Forty years later, Argentina offered a formal apology to all victims of the Holocaust for granting asylum to those responsible for it.
It is worth saying that in Israel the issue of capturing and punishing the Nazis was very relevant.Most of the local population either suffered from the Holocaust themselves, or they had relatives, acquaintances, friends who had been to death camps. Some 200,000 Israelis passed through the ghettos and the concentration camp. For this countryAdolf EichmannHe was in first place in the list of wanted fascists. The capture of this person was a matter of principle.
Version of the scouts of Israel
The book by Isser Harel “The Abduction of the Executioner” states that in 1957, on September 19, the Prosecutor General of the State of Hesse F. Bower gave Dr. Schneier information about the probable location of the fugitive in Argentina. This happened during the reparation negotiations. According to other sources, Bower appealed to the officer of the Israeli Security Council in Frankfurt, S. Daromu. Information about Eichmann was received from Lothar Herman. At one time he was a German lawyer, and later settled in Argentina. During the war years he, like many others, suffered from the fascists. Herman suggested that Eichmann was one of the members of the German colony in Buenos Aires. About his conjectures, he wrote to Bauer. The information came to Isser Harel through the Israeli Foreign Ministry.
Version T. Friedman
According to other sources, an employee of the Institute Yad Vashem came to Eichmann.Tuvia Friedman was a former prisoner. In 1957, he created an independent Institute for Investigation and Documentation of Nazi Crimes. It was he who secured the award of 10 thousand dollars for information about the whereabouts of the fugitive.
The first attempt was made by Friedman at the end of the war. Then he acted together with Asher Ben-Nathan, who represented the Mossad le-Aliya Bet (the secret organization of the Jews) in Austria. They managed to interrogate Dieter Viszelini. Through him, they received information about the driver and mistress of Eichmann. However, an ambush at the apartment did not bring the latest results. But she managed to find out some information concerning the place where there may beAdolf Eichmann. A photothe fugitive was also received from her.
In 1959, at the end of August, Friedman received a letter from the head of the Federal Center, investigating the crimes of the fascists E. Schule. The report said that Eichmann was in Kuwait. Friedman was familiar with the journalist of the newspaper Maariv Moshe Meyzelsom, which offered to print the information. They decided to do this on the eve of the Day of Judgment - October 11, 1959, to remind the government of the debt to all those who died in the camps. The article was reprinted by many publications, a large number of media referred to it in reports.
On October 12, information appeared in a German-language newspaper published in Buenos Aires. A week later, Herman sent Friedman a letter where he indicated that Eichmann was in Argentina, and not in Kuwait. In the message, the author wrote that the fugitive lives very carefully, under a different name, with his wife and sons in his own house. According to Hermann, Eichmann was rich and, skillfully maneuvering, hid from public attention.
According to Israeli historian Sh. Briman, there were three more letters to Friedman. After that, he brought Herman with representatives of the Mossad. It is worth saying that in most of the sources Friedman is not mentioned. Although the official list of persons involved in the capture of Eichmann, he is present.
This man, according to historians, played a key role in the capture of Eichmann. Herman was unable to avoid being sent to the camp, despite the absence of special prerequisites for this. He was a German Jew, his wife was German. Hermann was blind, however, despite this, while living in Argentina, he was interested in all the events that concerned the capture of fugitive fascists.
When he learned that his daughter met a certain Nicholas Eichmann, who spoke about the merits of his father before the Reich, Herman compared information with what he already knew and realized that this was the son of a wanted executioner.The promised prize was given to him only in 1972, shortly before his death.
For a long time his name was hidden. When the public learned who gave the location of Eichmann, Hermann began to pursue local Nazis. Lothar's daughter was forced to leave Argentina.
Preparation of the operation
After finding out where Eichmann is hiding, the Israeli leadership decides to secretly remove him from Argentina. There was a risk that the fugitive’s official request for extradition would be rejected and he would again be able to escape. The fact is that after the war, Argentina was a refuge for the Nazis. Juan Peron - the president of the country - sympathized with Hitler. He not only allowed the entry of a huge number of Germans, but also actively contributed to their concealment. Many Nazis were employed in the Argentine armed forces. By 1955, the president was overthrown. However, the pro-Nazi sentiment was very strong. The chance of issuing a fugitive was insignificant. The Israeli government could not take that risk. In addition, there was a probability of issuing Eichmann Germany. But 15 years after the end of the war, the fugitive fascists received rather mild punishments.Israel feared that Eichmann would escape responsibility.
The operation was headed personally by the head of the Mossad, Harel. Rafi Eitan was appointed as the head of the task force. All who participated in the abduction were volunteers. Most of them suffered from the Nazis, many loved ones died. All volunteers were warned that Eichmann should be delivered alive.
At the end of 1959, the development of an abduction began. In April next year, the participants engaged in direct training. In Argentina, investigators came at different times one at a time. To arrange travel management "Mossad" organized travel agency. The operation was timed to coincide with the visit of the Israeli delegation to Buenos Aires to celebrate the anniversary of the country's independence.
There were no regular flights between the states. In this regard, it was decided to take out Eichmann by plane of the official delegation. I had to devote the administration of the airline in the plans of operatives.
On April 26th, Eichmann was monitored. Three days later, Harel flew to Argentina. In total, 30 people participated in the operation, 12 of whom were involved in direct seizure and removal, while the rest performed auxiliary functions.In Buenos Aires, the operatives rented several cars and houses, set up communications, worked out all the details, including spare options in case of failure.
The first capture date was set for May 10th. But, taking into account the remarks of the operations group, he was transferred to the day.
Course of events
On May 11, seven people in two cars were waiting for Eichmann, who was supposed to return from work. As a rule, he came on a seven-hour evening bus. But this time it was not. He appeared only in 20.05. Turning on the flashlight, Eichmann headed for the house. His immediate arrest was made by Peter Malkin.
When the fugitive approached the ambush at a distance of about 10 meters, he called him in Spanish. Approaching him, Malkin squeezed Eichmann's neck and threw him to the ground. Helpers jumped out of the car. Abraham Shalom grabbed the fugitive by the legs, Eitan helped from the other side. The three of them pushed Eichmann into the car.
As Malkin later said, it took them no more than 20 seconds to capture. There were no witnesses nearby. According to Eitan, Eichmann did not resist, just howled. In the car, they put a gag in his mouth, tied him up, put on his glasses, covered him with a blanket.
Content in the villa
After delivery, Eichmann was searched and inspected for detection. Zvi Aroni conducted the first interrogation at which the identity of the fugitive was confirmed. Eichmann without hesitation called all his numbers, including the party card NSDAP.
On May 13, operatives notified the government about the seizure. In the villa, Eichmann was kept under heavy guard for 9 days. He was handcuffed to the bed. All this time he was in dark glasses. In one room with him was a guard, who was ordered to keep his eyes on the prisoner. The second man was in the adjacent room with the door open. Everyone who was in the villa was forbidden to speak with Eichmann. The execution of the prescription was monitored by Eitan.
At night, security was set up in the courtyard. Directly in the room where the prisoner was located, an alarm button was installed. Entry and exit from the house were restricted. Harel visited Eichmann on May 15th. All people who, to one degree or another, were in contact with the captive, were forced to control emotions and restrain themselves and others.
As Harel later wrote, the woman who cooked food with difficulty resisted not to poison Eichmann. During his stay in the villa interrogations were conducted.Harel claims that the operatives managed to get a written, voluntary confession of a prisoner of crimes, as well as consent to a trial in Israel.
May 19 at the airport of Buenos Aires got the plane "El Al". On the evening of the next day, Eichmann was drugged, dressed in the form of a pilot. At the airport, a passport was presented in the name of Rafael Arnon. Previously a fictitious accident was initiated with his participation, a document was issued on discharge from the hospital, where it was indicated that the patient could be flown by an airplane under the supervision of a doctor. At midnight, the board flew to Israel.
May 22 meeting was held. Many witnesses who survived the Holocaust spoke at the hearing. Since 1954, the death sentence was banned. However, the highest measure, according to the Knesset, was a fair punishment for everything that he didAdolf Eichmann. Executiontook place in 1962, from May 31 to June 1. In prison, the prisoner kept diaries. Subsequently they were published.
The hearing was attended by journalists.Sayings of Adolf Eichmannat meetings recorded not only in the minutes. Most of those present hated the accused.However, there were those who felt sorry for him.
Some have survivedquotes by Adolf Eichmann. For example, he said that he never worked for money. His sole purpose was to serve the country.
There is evidence of how Eichmann Adolf died. His last word was addressed to his country, Argentina and Austria. Before hanging, he said that he was obliged to comply with military regulations and served as the banner of Germany. His body was cremated, the dust scattered over the sea.
It is worth saying that the case of Adolf Eichmann caused a rather wide international resonance. Some countries criticized the government of Israel. The remaining states, including the USSR, supported the operation.
Based on these events more than one film was released. Adolf Eichmann, in the opinion of Hannah Arendt, a correspondent for The New Yorker magazine, was not some sort of monster. She wrote that it was quite an ordinary ordinary person, one of the cogs of the totalitarian mechanism. If you watch a film shot in 1975, Adolf Eichmann is really shown as a simple citizen who performed the duty. At the same time, in the picture, apart from the controversial issues of personal and collective responsibility for war crimes, the problem of implementing the principle of an eye for an eye is considered.
At the trial, Eichmann expressed neither sorrow nor repentance.He said he did not understand why he was hated, because he only carried out the order.