Anthropic principle of the universe. Anthropic principle in philosophy
The anthropic principle in recent decades has taken more and more attention in such a science as cosmology, which is distinguished by its tendency to ask questions that go far beyond the scope of this science itself. The fundamental monograph by Barrow and Tipler recorded an interest in such theories and was published in a number of leading biological, physical, philosophical, religious, theological, and popular science publications. What is the reason for such increased attention?
Why is everything so arranged
This is the first reason for the popularity of such a phenomenon as the anthropic principle in cosmology. Many people see in it the answer to the eternal question: why is everything (nature in particular) arranged like this, and not otherwise? The anthropic principle states that the Universe by default possesses all the properties that we observe. This happens for the reason that in the other Universe with other properties of the observed there would be no observer himself, so nobody would just be able to ask such questions about the structure of the universe.This leads to the conclusion that there is a certain “hidden principle” that organizes our Universe in a certain way. The anthropic principle is considered as the main attempt to explain the scientific and mysterious structure of the world.
The philosophical motive of cosmology
Is there a unity of man and nature (the universe)? The anthropic principle touches upon this eternal philosophical theme, and also asks a question about the nature of such unity (if it exists). The answers to this question have always been diametrically opposed and often expressed in a paradoxical and epatizing surrounding form. Many authors generally sidestep the anthropic principle, and some even criticize and express themselves in a negative spirit.
The influence of Copernicus and Bruno
The anthropic principle, according to one of its authors, Carter, is based on the reaction against the blind and excessive follow-up of Copernicus. This scientist at one time argued that we should not assume that he occupies a central and privileged position in the world, without having good reasons for this. Strictly speaking, it would be more correct to call this principle the name of Giordano Bruno.Copernicus deprived the Earth of the right to a special position in the Universe, but gave the Sun such status. An understanding of the world based on the equivalence of all points and places in the world came to us from the ideas of Bruno, for example, about the “multiplicity of universes”. Copernicus, on the other hand, expanded this ideological principle to dogma, which is highly doubtful and consists in the fact that our position is not a privileged a priori. The anthropic cosmological principle considers this theory untenable, since the Universe develops and is not homogeneous in space, and also because favorable conditions are a direct prerequisite for our appearance (temperature, pressure, and so on). It follows that our position, although not privileged, is necessarily central. What is this about? The anthropic principle of the Universe says that it is precisely the complex processes of the organization of rational structures (man) that is nothing but a link with the properties of expansion and evolution of our Universe.
The anthropic principle has a long world history, the sources of which are lost in the depths of history and culture. The idea of the unity of the universe and man was developed in many religious and philosophical doctrines.In the philosophy of the East, for example, this idea took the form of the “dissolution” of the individual in the surrounding world. In other directions, on the contrary, the principle of anthropocentrism was more popular (for example, with Aristotle) or the “pre-established harmony” of Leibniz. In the twentieth century, the problem of the unity of the universe and man began to attract the attention of scientists more and more. Initially, the anthropic principle was developed through the research of Wallace, in which one can find an attempt to revive teleology and anthropocentrism. It is also possible to take out from his works the most important moment and the basic idea that man is the crown of organic conscious life and could not develop just like that, by chance. Wallace wrote that a huge number of universes may well exist in infinite space.
The anthropic principle by leaps and bounds developed at the turn of the sixties. It was at this time that the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the Universe became clear, without understanding of which it would be difficult to speak in detail about how a person appeared and why. The link between the long and rapid expansion of the Universe and the conditions that allow the development of the mind and civilization was noted.An astronomer such as Idlis analyzed the problems concerning the origin of life from an astronomical point of view. It was concluded that the expansion of the universe favors the evolutionary processes taking place in it, which ultimately led to the conclusion that we are not observing arbitrary areas of Mega-galaxy, but only those whose special structure has become suitable for the development and emergence of life in it. The anthropic cosmological principle undoubtedly absorbed all these conclusions.
Theory of weak principle
The strong and weak anthropic principle is the fundamental and classical formulations derived by the scholar Carter in 1973 thanks to the controversy with his colleague Dicke. What it is? The weak principle states that our position in the Multiverse is privileged, as it is co-existing with our existence as direct observers. It is about explaining the isolation of the era in which intelligent beings live, the existence of which does not contradict the fundamental laws of nature, as well as the nature of evolution. The weak anthropic principle in cosmology states that if we lived in a different era,they would simply be absent for a number of physical reasons that would not coincide and, as a result, could not be fixed. Thus, this fundamental law recognizes nature as a given and all its properties, stating our privileged position in the Universe.
Theory of the strong principle
The strong anthropic principle states that the fundamental parameters of the Universe must be such that at a certain stage of evolution observers could exist. The specificity of the Multiverse is in the very fine “fitting” of a whole series of numbers and physical constants so that the basic elements of a highly organized world (nuclei, atoms, galaxies, stars, etc.) are formed and stably exist. Even a minimal deviation would lead to the loss of stability and the loss of the link of evolution, which could be critical. The strong and weak anthropic principle is interconnected with each other; it is impossible to consider one in isolation from the other. With this approach, it can be argued that, since the “observer” exists, the Universe is a priori what it is. Otherwise, there would be no one to observe it, and therefore it would not exist at all due to the absence of an observer and witness to its existence.
The anthropic principle in modern cosmology is associated with such a concept as the “ensemble” of the Universes. It postulates many variations of universums, in which (as a result of scholastic processes) all combinations of parameters (both variables and fundamental constants) are implemented without exception. The anthropic principle states that in this whole multitude there will be universes that have developed favorable circumstances for the birth of intelligent life at a certain stage of evolution. And our Universum just belongs to this type. A similar view of the anthropic principle in philosophy leads to a sound explanation of the effect of the subtlest “fit” of all parameters in our world and in space as a whole. Already in 1957, physicist Everett developed his “many-world” concept in quantum mechanics, where it is stated that at every moment in time all possible variants of the development of the state of a system exist and are realized. The untropic principle in cosmology asserts that the physical Universe has an infinite number of so-called “branches” - copies of isolated worlds. At the same time, the observer can only be in one and does not know about the existence of other worlds.The stability of the Universe and the anthropic principle become much more explainable from a scientific and physical point of view, if we apply the Everett concept to them.
If the anthropic principle is correct, then there can be no self-selection, since nature itself does not have a “choice”. That is why theologians, religious scientists and philosophers became interested in this theory. The anthropic principle has many parallels with the “argument of design”: the subtle and complex “fitting” of all parts of the Universe may well indicate the existence of some reasonable creator. Developed not so long ago by the scientist J. Wheeler, the "principle of participation" says that the observer is just as necessary for the appearance of the Universe as it is and vice versa. The universe exists through the presence of observations that are carried out by intelligent beings at a certain stage of evolution.
But why did nature choose from the entire possible array of solutions the one that led to the creation of us? Why were the initial conditions? According to the “anthropic statement”, the theory about which appeared in the early eighties, there is a stage of “inflating” the Universe - its rapid expansion, inflation.At this time, the processes of smoothing any initial homogeneity and, as a consequence, the depreciation of these preliminary conditions. The anthropic cosmological principle states that the present state of the Universe does not depend on the initial conditions and is an “attractor” for evolutionary trajectories. Thus, using such a theory as the anthropic principle in cosmology, it became possible to describe the substrate parameters - the density of matter, the presence of spin of elementary particles, the nature of the distribution of substances in the Universe, and so on.