Buinichskoe field: history, memorial
Buinichskoye field is a place of great spiritual and historical value. Here in 1941 there were battles that played an important role.in progressthe whole war. HistoryBuynichskyfields inMogilev topic of the article.
June 22, suddenly, without a declaration of war, the Nazis crossed the borders of the USSR. Was this attack really sudden? The question is rhetorical. Today, it is known that in Moscow a sudden strike just before the start of the war was sufficiently expected. In the last moments, the General Staff even managed to start sending out a special order to bring the troops into combat readiness. Butobviouslyone thing: only thanks to the quickness of the officers who took command of the border and inMogilevThe blitzkrieg failed.
b even an orderreachedbefore the officers and soldiers, it would have seemed to them not quite understandable, not even to say absurd. For a long time both military and ordinary citizens were told that there would be no war. Those who dared to express a version of the imminent German attack on the Soviet Union turned out to belattice. They were convicted ofalarmism.
As a result: the Wehrmacht’s troops didn’t feel the resistance in the first hours, but even the days of resistance. The front line, in fact, was not. Separate Soviet units in the absence of a systematic military command, at best, retreated, carryingheavylosses. At worst, they were surrounded. In July 1941 an event occurred that became the most important in the historyBuynichskyfields,Mogilev,Belarusand the entire Soviet Union ...
The main goal of the Wehrmacht
Behind Minsk.Wingedthe success of the German command decided that the question of the capture of Moscow was alreadyresolved. Some pockets of resistance were still smoldering, including the Brest Fortress. But the Nazis believed that it was just a matter of time. Ahead they had the maintarget is the capitalTHE USSR.
What was the surprise of Hitler and his entourage, when after only two and a half weeks of almost victorious advance in the east direction, the headquarters received information that one of the tank units had suddenly stopped. It happened at a checkpoint near the city of Mogilev.
The role of the battle of Mogilev
The battles fought by the Soviet soldiers,all of a suddenforced German officers to unfold a map of the USSR and find a small Belarusian town there.BuynichskyThe fields near Mahilow didn’t have a very small object on the map. The fights that were fought here, as Zhukov later said in an interview, provided an invaluable service to the Soviet command. They allowed to gain time and organize defense.
Soldiers in the Lush Field didn’t fight for awards or honors. Surprise, fear, panic - this is what prevailed in the first days in the country. On the Buinichsky field, as well as in the Brest Fortress, something difficult to explain happened. The soldiers fought to the last drop of blood, forgetting everything: about themselves, their loved ones, about the usual human fear of death. They had practically no chance to survive.
The German command planned to get into Mogilyov from the city of Bobruisk and concentrated on this territory the third tank division, as well as several infantry units, which were supported by aviation and artillery. HaveBuynichskyThe field took place in those days the leading edge of the defense. In early July, the Nazis more than once subjected the Red Army troops stationed on this site to massive shelling.
FirstseriousGermans suffered losses on July 12. The Soviet army fired back at enemy tanks. The Nazis responded immediately. Turning on the offensive, the German command sent to the Soviet positions, through the field, where today is a memorial, seventy tanks. This fight lasted fourteen hours.
The Soviet units managed to knock out and burn thirty-nine tanks, as well as repel several enemy attacks. July 13 the Germans broke into the position of the third battalion. But from there they were counterattacked by the soldiers of the regiment. All this allowed for some time to dislodge the German troops from the captured positions. The Red Army held its position until July 22.
39 German tanks
In July 1941Buynichskoethe field near Mogilev was visited by the later famous writerthe reporterKonstantin Simonov. After the war, he recited these lands in his works, and above all in the novel Living andthe dead. July 11, Konstantin Simonov was sent to Mahilyow. That evening he learned the dizzying news: Soviet troopsin progressA 14-hour battle, using bottles with a combustible mixture, destroyed 39 German tanks. And defended the line of defense.
The journalist managed to get toBuynichskyfield. Together with his colleagues, he took several pictures that should be delivered as soon as possible to Moscow. A photoBuynichskyThe fields made by Simonov’s colleague more than 75 years ago can be seen in this article.
Fierce hostilities were conducted around, reporters struggled to escape from Mogilev. On July 20, valuable negatives were already in the capital of the USSR. And the next day in the newspapers there were photos that showedtwistedGerman tanks. The Soviet people believed that German invincibility was just a myth.
Battle onBuynichskyThe field became the first event in the history of the Second World War, when it was possible to stop the movement of the German troops for a more or less long period. Local police officers, NKVD employees, ordinary residents of Mogilev, all of them took part in the defense of the city, which lasted more than 20 days. Smolensk was already taken, but defensive battles were still being fought here.
The events in the Buinichsky field discouraged the German command. The Nazis captured Poland without much loss. No problem walked through Paris. And suddenly they experienced an unexpected rebuff next to a small Belarusian city, the existence of which they had never known before.
OnBuynichskyfield, military leader Simonov first sawfiercebattles, his friends died, he bequeathed to bury himself. Life writer in 1979. About the story of the burial of a long time still talking, moving onwhisper. The fact is that it was not so easy to fulfill the will of the writer who passed away.
In the CPSU Central Committee, it was decided to bury Simonov at the Novodevichy cemetery. Relatives did not even ask for anything. But they, contrary to orders from above, having received the writer's urn, poisoned themselves in Mogilev and dispelled its dust over the field.
Other historical events
OnBuynichskythe field was quite significant historical events.Andnot only the battles that took place in July 1941. In the XVI century, it was here that an uprising of Belarusian peasants occurred, to the suppression of whichCommonwealthsent a huge equestrian army. OnBuynichskyThe field battle took place during the war of 1812. Yet the memorial, opened here in 1995, is dedicated primarily to Soviet soldiers.
None of the former republics of the Soviet Union honors the feat of Soviet soldiers as much asBelorussia. Many monuments have been built here, and many of them after the collapse of the USSR. Memorial onBuynichskythe field opened in the mid-nineties, since 2002, is a historical and cultural value of Belarus. Every resident and guest of the republic should see him.
Memorial complex "Buinichskoye field"
Project authors OlegBaranovsky and VladimirChalenko. At the entrance to the memorial complex there is a high arch, lined with red brick. At sunset, the sun's rays give the walls a fiery hue. On the arches are bas-reliefs, which depict the battle. Here is a list of members of the national militia.
The main object of this complex is a 27-meter chapel, which is also lined with red brick. It is a symbol of the greatness of the military spirit. On top of the copper dome. And inside the chapel there are memorial marble plaques on which you can read the names of the soldiers defending Mogilyov in 1941. Here alsoisFoucault's pendulum, symbolizing the memory of the fallen soldiers.
From the main building of the complex are paths. One of them is named in honor of Konstantin Simonov. This alley ends with a huge stone on which words are engraved,dedicatedSoviet writer.