Car "Moskvich-410": technical specifications, tuning
Now nobody is surprised. Earlier, during the Soviet era, such machines were also built. For example, this is the younger version of the legendary “Victory” and the SUV from the Gorky automobile plant GAZ-69. There was also a "Moskvich-410" - the Soviet "crossover", if I may say so.
Jeep: first or not first
Let's try to go back to the 50s of the last century. These are the years of the Khrushchev thaw. After the twentieth party congress in a huge Soviet country, they finally paid attention to the needs of the villagers. Residents of cities and towns began to gradually discover automotive tourism. Later, both villagers and city tourists would be interested in an unusual car at that time.Now in all areas of the industry is very fashionable to argue about the primacy. Similarly, such a term as “crossover” has a history. When the "Moskvich-410" was still a young model, it was believed that he was the very first.
The idea of creating a comfortable passenger car on all-wheel drive platforms, was implemented during the Second World War.At the same time, the primacy here was not behind the Soviet Union, where at that time with almost completely absent roads these models were the most necessary. For example, Marmon Herrihgton was used as a prototype and concept in the creation of the GAZ-61. In turn, it is built on a platform from Ford. This small company then created and even converted single-wheel drive passenger sedans to all-wheel drive. But both domestic and American SUVs were frame.Gas-M72 was already carrying the body type. But the "Victory" with all-wheel drive was built on the basis of powerful half-frames. They served as a body amplifier. Therefore, it is GAZ-72 that can be considered the first crossover.
How was born "Moskvich"
As already mentioned, its birth "Moskvich-410" Nikita Khrushchev owes. He endorsed the idea of creating all-wheel drive all-terrain cars. In addition, at the plenum in 54, the government decides to increase grain production and increase the development of virgin lands. It soon became clear that machine operators had certain difficulties with the repair work of field equipment. In order to get to the place of breakdown, you need a suitable vehicle.If in the European part of the USSR an auto mechanic was able to get to the fields on a ride or on a cart with a horse, then on virgin soil or in the steppes it was necessary to drive several dozen kilometers. There were very few trucks, and using the GAZ-M72 for this purpose was too expensive.And in the year 56, Wasserman and the team began work on the creation of a four-wheel drive passenger car, which then had to provide machine operators. The model had an index M73. The prototype was created completely from scratch. In this case, the engineers did not make any bindings to the future body. To reduce the cost of production, all the technical part was used from the 402nd Moskvich.
Experimental samples had four-wheel drive, low weight, tires with a dimension of 15 ”with an off-road pattern. All this allowed them to demonstrate excellent performance on the cross.
Then the body parts began to grow and they had to somehow be strengthened. For this, the body base, the frame under the engine and the front fenders were partially reworked. Also on this car for the first time in the entire practice of this enterprise they used pedals of the suspended type.
Body and interior
The body has remained virtually unchanged, but this can not be said about the cabin.Since the steering "Moskvich" received from the M73, and the experts of the Gorky Automobile Plant borrowed the mechanism from the "Victory", something had to be done. It was decided to install on the novelty a reinforced steering wheel without additional options.
If we compare the "Moskvich-410" with the 402-m, then the sealing has significantly improved in the cabin. The seats were trimmed with leatherette. In the cabin on the same places were all the usual elements of comfort. They are completely taken from the 402nd. Inside and under the hood there are plenty of opportunities for various modifications. You can buy the "Moskvich-410", make the corresponding tuning and get a unique retro car. But even with such modifications, this car was not included in the series. All the achievements of the Gorky Automobile Plant were given to MZAM - Moscow plant of small cars. There they began to learn a new model.
Lightweight and powerful: design features
On MZAM, the engineers had a body, a 35-liter engine. from. for A-70 gasoline, three-speed manual transmission - all these units are taken from the 402nd. Also used a number of components and assemblies designed for the M73.Next, the adaptation process began. So, the body of the car had to be installed on all-wheel drive chassis. But with this, then there were no problems. The technology is very simple, even there was no need to use robotics, like today. The body was installed on drive axles with spring-dependent suspension type.Among the differences from the base 402nd model, you can select the engine. It was planned that the car will work in difficult conditions. So, the engine will be operated at higher speeds. Thus, the lubrication system was equipped with a special radiator. There are no more significant differences, well, except in the transmission.
Features of the gearbox and chassis
Bridges and front suspension were made completely from scratch. At the base of the front axle are the CV joints of the Bendix-Weiss type. Telescopic shock absorbers in the basic version did not use. They were replaced by levers, which were much better suited for use in poor road conditions.The transfer box provided the vehicle with all-wheel drive and was created from scratch. Even then it could be interlocked with a mechanical transmission,but with parallel-longitudinal axes of the body, the rear propeller shaft approached the rear axle differential diagonally. Managed transfer case with one lever. In addition to allowing the axles to be controlled, he also had the downshift function. The car had good off-road performance.
Initially, an engine from the 402nd model was installed on the Moskvich-410 car. But 35 horsepower was clearly not enough. Now this engine had to rotate additional shafts and gears in the transfer case, as well as a pretty heavy chassis.Then in the year 58, they began to equip the car with another power unit. It is more powerful in 45 l. from. upper valve engine from the 407th model. This significantly increased the already good performance of the terrain. With this motor, the car moved more confidently even under load. What is the maximum torque of the USSR avtolegendy? “Moskvich-410” gave 69 Nm at low revs of 2500 thousand.
A little more about the salon
Getting inside, you can note a good visibility. This is all due to the high landing and narrow front struts. Exterior mirrors help a little.Legroom is enough for everyone - both the driver and passengers. With the setting of the front sofa, motorists who are accustomed to modern comfort may have difficulties. It is necessary to unscrew the sheep in the place where the seat is attached to the floor and then move the one-piece sofa forward or backward. The back has only two possible positions. It is vertical and horizontal.
The ceiling is trimmed in beige upholstery, the door cards are light brown. These colors go well with the plastic front panel. The dashboard is a speedometer in the well, as well as horizontal indicators. In some models there was also a regular radio.
So, let's see what Moskvich-410 is capable of. Specifications for that time were quite good - the car was rated positively.The car is a sedan with a monocoque body. The machine is designed for 4 seats, including the driver. Let's list all the performance characteristics:
- Dimensions: length - 4055 mm, width - 1540 mm, height - 1670 mm.
- Clearance is 220 mm.
- Engine - four-cylinder, carburetor with a volume of 1.2 liters.
- Its capacity is 35 liters. from. at 4200 rpm
- The maximum torque is 69.6 Nm at 2500 rpm.
- Transmission - manual, three-step.
- Suspension - spring type.
- Brakes - drum.
- Vehicle weight 1180 kg.
- The maximum speed on the passport - 85 kilometers per hour.
- Fuel consumption is 10 l / 100 km, which is 5 liters less than the previous model.
So, we found out what the "Moskvich-410" has the technical characteristics and design. Now such cars are left except in automobile museums. Still, there are connoisseurs who restore this technique. By the way, there are on sale all the necessary parts. “Moskvich-410” can be restored in a relatively short time.