Dangerous tetanus disease: symptoms and causes
Tetanus is a dangerous, severe infectious disease. It is caused by exotoxins, which are secreted by bacteria in the wound. They affect the diseased nervous system and cause tonic convulsions. Between 30% and 50% of patients infected with tetanus bacillus die.
How is tetanus disease transmitted
The causative agent of the disease lives in the intestines of animals and humans, as well as in the upper layers of the soil. Sometimes a tetanus bacillus is found in room dust and even in the folds of clothing. From there, she easily falls into the wound, regardless of its origin: stabbed, chopped or abraded. With a lack of oxygen, which happens with suppuration, tissue necrosis, or the presence of foreign bodies, the wand begins to produce a toxin. It is transmitted through the nerve fibers and disrupts the activity of the nervous system.
Tetanus: incubation period
The incubation period for tetanus can last from three days to two weeks, but in some cases it can be up to fifty days. It depends on how far the wound is removed from the central nervous system.The farther the site of infection, the longer the incubation period, and the disease will be easier. Most often during this period, the patient feels periodic headaches and twitching at the site of injury. Closer to the height of the disease can appear sore throat, insomnia, chills and loss of appetite. But it is necessary to take into account that there is also asymptomatic during the incubation period.
Tetanus: symptoms and signs of the initial period of the disease
On the onset of the initial period of the disease speak pain in the area even completely healed wounds. There are stiffness and soreness when working the muscles of the abdomen and back. Difficulty chewing and swallowing. It is difficult for the patient to open his mouth (trismus), convulsions reduce facial muscles, giving the face either a suffering, or smiling expression (sardonic smile). The most expressive symptom is opisthotonus. It consists in the fact that the patient arches in an arc, resting on the bed only at the back of the head and on the heels.
Tetanus: symptoms of the height of the disease
The initial period lasts about two days. Then comes the height of the disease, in which all three of the above symptoms appear clearly.The stiffness of the muscles of the patient reaches such strength that a person can move only the hands and feet. Periodic painful cramps are observed, when the already tense muscles tighten even more. At the same time, the patient has increased sweating, tachycardia, the temperature rises. The face becomes puffy and blue. Between attacks of muscle relaxation does not occur. The patient swallows and empties with difficulty.
Tetanus: symptoms of recovery
The recovery period lasts about two months. The number of seizures and muscle tension are slowly reduced. And by the beginning of the fourth week stop altogether. Normal heart activity is restored only at the end of the third month. Sometimes at this time complications may begin to appear. And if they are not, then the patient is fully recovering. But it must be remembered that immunity to tetanus bacillus in the body is not produced, so the tetanus, the symptoms of which were described above, can strike a person repeatedly.