Dialectisms are components of the Russian language. Definitions, explanations, examples
In addition to the literary language, parts of the Russian language are also territorial dialects, vernaculars and jargons. After reading this article, you will learn what words are, the necessary definitions and explanations - all this you will find in it.
The term "dialect". Literary language and dialects
First of all, let's define what we will talk about. There are various types of dialectisms. Researchers speak not only about territorial, but also about social dialects. However, these formations are so different in their nature and nature of distribution, as well as in their role in the composition of the national language, that the phrase "Russian dialectisms" is better applied only in relation to territorial ones. The territory of distribution as a characterizing attribute is characteristic of both dialects and literary language, but the nature of this characteristic is different.In the national language, he determines his dialect division, the division of the same literary language into a variety does not depend on him. Here, this feature determines not the division, but the distribution of literary speech in a particular territory. And yet, a territorial attribute has the ability to communicate between such different and even opposing formations of the national language, such as literary speech and dialects, which many researchers consider to be antipodes within the national language that are in oppositional relations. This connection is manifested in the influence of dialects on the literary language. The result of which are some differences in the material embodiment of the latter, depending on the territorial proximity of the city center to a particular dialect. The question arises about regional variations of the literary language.
Talking and adverb
Dialectisms are words for which two more terms are used: "dialect" and "adverb". As the larger dialect formations break up into smaller ones, one would expect that the three terms used reflect this difference.However, in practice they are used almost as synonyms, and only preferences can be noted: dialect of one village, South Russian dialects, South-Russian dialect, Russian folk dialects, dialect differences, dialect associations, dialect features, dialect groups. These phrases of terminological nature are used in linguistic literature. Apparently, the smallest dialect unit, usually referred to as "a separate dialect", "a dialect of a village such and such (its name)", should be called a "dialect". Sayings are dialect words, which in their homogeneous totality form an adverb.
Social dialects (this concept is widely used in American linguistics) are not systemic, but only lexical features of the speech of certain social and professional groups, as well as age groups. This leading feature - the absence of peculiarities in the field of phonetics and grammar, where they use nationwide and literary language means - fundamentally distinguishes them from traditional territorial peasant dialects and therefore does not allow characterizing them as dialectisms. This is slang by nature. Such dialects are non-system, unstable and fleeting.They are not obligatory to use and not universal. In contrast, territorial dialectisms are words that have evolved over the centuries, they are archaic, conservative, stable and systemic. The latter means that dialect language features are represented at all levels of the language.
Central to linguistic geography is the concept of "isoglossy". On the basis of its establishment, it became possible to compile maps showing the dialectal division of the Russian language. Isogloss is a line connecting on the map the same linguistic fact presented in different places along the border of its distribution. It belongs to any level of language (phonetics, vocabulary, grammar, word formation). Each fact has its own isogloss, showing the limits of its representation in a particular territory where dialectisms exist. Examples of words that sound differently in different places are numerous. For example, to the north of Moscow in unstressed syllables in the place of the etymological "o" is pronounced "o" (sounds in accordance with the spelling, which has a historical character). To the south, this position is represented by the pronunciation of "a".This pattern covers the entire vocabulary.
Dialects and literary words
Considering the words-dialectisms, it should be said that in the dialects, along with specific many general literary words. The compilers of dialect dictionaries face the question of whether to include them in the vocabulary vocabulary? The word "imat" in the dictionary D.N. Ushakov is considered for the literary language as obsolete or ironic, in the Arkhangelsk dialects it is used in the meanings of "take, grab, catch"; the word "lzya" for a literary language is obsolete, in the Arkhangelsk dialects it is used and it means "it is possible". The verb "to live", unlike a literary language, in these dialects applies not only to animate beings, but also to inanimate objects, etc.
The value of dialectology
The data of dialectology are invaluable for understanding the nature of Russian literary oral and, in particular, colloquial speech. Dialectisms are words that are very important for historical research in the field of lexicology, semantics, word formation, etymology, morphology, historical phonetics and phonology.