English bourgeois revolution - the forerunner of early capitalism
The English bourgeois revolution was a shock to all-European significance. Its deep role is not only to change the socio-political system and economic priorities in the Foggy Albion itself, but also that it was a kind of a catalyst for a chain reaction in the leading European countries, thereby contributing to a new degree to the new world order the history of the continent.
At that time, when the English bourgeois revolution began, in the depths of feudal society, new production facilities were born and the progressive form of capitalist relations accompanying them. But the victorious march of the new economic system was hampered by the domination of the feudal nobility, led by King Charles the First Stewart.The English bourgeois revolution was called upon to put an end to this state of affairs and to turn the socio-political and economic structure of the country into a new progressive channel.
Political and religious background
The political system of most European countries at the end of the Middle Ages was feudal absolutist in nature. And England was no exception. The strongest centralization of the state was a powerful and very effective tool for the nobility to defend the feudal system that organized them. In such a situation, the removal of obstacles that hindered the further development of capitalist relations could only be carried out by armed confrontation, that is, revolution. The situation for the English crown was further complicated by the numerous conflicts between the monarch and the Puritans. The number of opponents of the regime grew rapidly. Meanwhile, an open clash with the parliament, which the king was forced to dissolve, further aggravated the confrontation. Sometime this boiling cauldron was supposed to explode, and the English bourgeois revolution of the 17th century was born in the hearth of the explosion.And adding here various and multiple economic reasons, we get a real critical mass of war. By the way, this recipe is suitable for the vast majority of social and political revolutions in the world.
Chronicle of the English autocracy
It must be admitted that the tension in English society, smoothly turning into a thunderstorm, grew from the very first years of the accession of Charles the First Stewart to the throne. After throwing prisoners after the above-mentioned clash of parliamentary leaders, the king took the position of the sole ruler of England for a long eleven years. The nobility of the new formation, the wealthy merchant class and the opposition clergy were barred from participating in any social and political affairs of national scale and importance. Karl introduced many additional taxes, tightened censorship, and intensified the persecution of the Puritans. The English bourgeois revolution, the causes of which lie in the above factors, too, simply could not take place in such conditions. In addition, flourishing trade and growing industrial production began to decline due to the arbitrariness of officials and the unrestricted sale of rights to a monopoly.As a result, emigration has sharply increased, the treasury is empty, and inflation has increased.
Convening a new parliament
At the end of 1642, Karl nevertheless convened a new parliament, which immediately passed a series of laws against the autocracy’s sovereignty. Having attempted to arrest the leaders of the opposition, the king stumbled upon the harsh opposition of a hundred thousand people who defended their freedoms and their impersonation - the parliament. Karl departed to the north of the country, where he was very popular with the Lords of landowners. The flames of civil war flared up.
The British bourgeois revolution, which proceeded mainly on a political plane, passed into the stage of armed confrontation. In August 1643, Karl called his loyal vassals to fulfill the oath of allegiance to the crown. He was immediately supported by the nobility, the Anglican Church, officials, merchants, artisans and farmers in London and the south-eastern regions of the country became on the side of parliament. For about a year, armed confrontation of the parties lasted without the start of hostilities. Three quarters of the territory of England, and accordingly its resources, were under the authority of the king.And only in the summer of 1644, the parliamentary army, having enlisted the support of the Scottish troops, decided to enter the phase of active hostilities.
At the initial stage, the war proceeded with mixed success. The cavalry of the legendary and very controversial character of English history - MP Oliver Cromwell, was able to bring in a significant change in her. Formed from volunteers, she June 14, 1645 in the battle of the small village of Noyzi completely defeated the royal army. Karl fled to Scotland. Cromwell proclaimed himself the "liberator of the kingdom" and appropriated for himself the rank of lieutenant general.
Behead the King
We must pay tribute to Cromwell, who by nature was not a bloodthirsty man. He just wanted to significantly limit royal power. But Karl took an implacable position, and this signed a death sentence for himself. And in February 1647 the Scots issued it to Parliament. At the trial, arranged by the deputies, Karl categorically rejected all the accusations. And he was soon executed. And the state was headed by the accepted title of Lord Protector Cromwell, whose personal dictatorship led to the restoration of the monarchy after his death.