Goals and objectives of accounting
Accounting in the modern version is presented as an ordered system for collecting, recording and summarizing information. Data is expressed in monetary terms. They characterize the property and obligations of the organization, as well as their movement through continuous continuous documentary accounting of ongoing business operations.
The definition above is considered to be the most comprehensive. In this regard, it is fixed at the legislative level and is present in the Federal Law "On Accounting". This concept describes the functions of the system most fully. The first emphasizes the orderliness of accounting. The definition in a concise form reflects the main stages of the process: the collection, recording and summarizing of information. Also clearly defined features of the system that distinguish it from other accounting forms - statistical, operational and others. These signs consist in maintaining strict documentation, process continuity.Indicated in the definition and the main gauge of information - money. And finally, the selected reporting objects.
Goals and objectives of accounting: general information
The main function of the system is to provide information to own and third-party stakeholders in accordance with the law or in accordance with the need for information. The data that is provided to its users should be reliable, timely and sufficient for making decisions on ensuring the most efficient management of the enterprise, evaluating its activities, planning, conducting control activities, and operating in non-standard conditions. Information contributes to the correct choice of organization policy, investment forecasting and so on.
Today, the aforementioned Federal Law, as well as the Regulations on Reporting and Accounting in the Russian Federation, are the main documents through which the regulation of the system in question is carried out. They ensure the unity of the methodology for collecting, recording and summarizing information throughout the country. Regulations set the procedure for maintaining documents, compiling and submitting forms.
The main objectives of accounting
They are formulated in the above regulations. The main objectives of accounting are the following:
- Formation of accurate and complete information about the activities of the enterprise and the financial situation necessary for internal users of reporting. The latter, in particular, include managers, participants, owners, founders. Data is also provided to external stakeholders. These include lenders, investors and other entities.
- The task of accounting is to provide information to internal and external users to exercise control over compliance with the law in the process of carrying out business activities. On the basis of the obtained data, the expediency of measures, the presence and movement of property and obligations is assessed. The data allows to analyze the rationality of the use of labor, monetary and material resources, the compliance of their application with established estimates and standards.
- The tasks of the accounting (financial) accounting also include the prevention of a negative result of the economic activity of the enterprise.Reporting allows you to identify internal reserves to ensure the sustainability of the organization.
Accounting includes financial and management components. The first is aimed at generating information for third-party users. The rules for maintaining financial accounting are regulated by regulatory and legislative acts. The forms and procedure for reporting are also established. Management accounting is established by the enterprise for internal users. Within its framework, information is used that is used in administration.
Management Reporting System
The objectives of accounting for internal users of the enterprise include:
- Orientation to achieve certain results of activity.
- Providing alternative solutions to the questions posed.
- The choice of the optimal management option and the calculation of the regulatory parameters of its implementation.
- Interpretation of detected deviations from the established performance standards and their analysis.
It should be noted that over time, the tasks of accounting in management have expanded significantly. Additional features include:
- Cost recording and reporting to interested parties. In this case, we are talking about, among other things, the classification, synthesis, publication and explanation of expenditure data to users.
- Determination and assessment of costs in relation to certain products, services (works) or responsibility centers, cost centers.
- Cost analysis and cost management. In this case, it is meant to provide information in such a way that it is suitable for control and planning.
Formation of information about current income and expenses, amounts of accounts payable and receivable, the state of sources of funds is achieved through the implementation of various actions, the implementation of techniques and methods of evaluation, documentation, identification of objects. Equally important is the solution of accounting problems. There are a variety of methodological manuals, containing examples and explanations that contribute to a more complete understanding of the discipline. In particular, for the implementation of certain procedures in practice, you can use the methodological manual, which shows any cross-cutting task of accounting, described in two parts.The first one describes the general organizational and economic conditions for the operation of an enterprise under a certain tax regime, for example, with the imposition of UTII. In this part, the tasks of accounting processes and business operations. The second part summarizes and systematizes certain provisions of legislative and regulatory acts on reporting in a different tax regime, for example, the simplified tax system. At the end of both parts, accounting and tax reports are compiled.
The practical value of benefits
It consists in the synthesis, systematization and subsequent application of the provisions of a number of legislative and regulatory acts in the field of accounting systems regulation. The manuals allow you to form an idea about the elements of reporting. In turn, this contributes to a deeper understanding of accounting in automated form.
The existing theory and practice of accounting changes its shape in the process of political reform and economic development, within which the economic activities of enterprises take place.Improvements in tax legislation have made it necessary to isolate from the system the appropriate direction - tax reporting.