How to grow mushrooms at home: important rules and tips
Champignon is the only representative of the mushroom family, growing in “captivity” better than in natural conditions. That is why on the shelves of this mushroom is present at any time of the year. Let us consider in more detail how to grow champignons at home and what is needed for this.
A little bit about the mushroom
Champignon is a small white plate of fungus that fairly won the hearts of gourmets around the world. Few people know, but this mushroom appeared in Russia in the X century - it was grown by the monks of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Hence the first name of the fungus - "Pecheritsa".
Champignons, unlike most fellows, are absolutely safe, in nature there are no poisonous mushrooms of this breed. Raw mushroom has a delicate nutty flavor, but more often still undergoes heat treatment. You can make more than one hundred hot dishes, soups and sauces from the champignon.In addition to cooking, it is widely used in medicine - oil extracts from this mushroom rejuvenate and moisturize the skin.
Conditions for growing mushrooms
Growing champignons at home is available even for beginners, but only with a responsible approach.
The following conditions are necessary for good mushroom growth.
- Air temperature. For the formation of a mycelium, it is necessary to maintain a temperature in the range of 23-25 ° C, and for the growth of fruit bodies - 15-17 ° C.
- Air humidity. It, unlike temperature, should be stable and be 75-85%.
- Lighting. In the premises for growing undesirable solar expense.
- Ventilation. Mushrooms like fresh air, so you need a good ventilation device.
Where can I grow mushrooms?
For growing champignons at home, you can use:
- in the summer: beds and special dug trenches;
- in winter: basements, sheds, greenhouses and greenhouses.
Mushroom cultivation in the garden
To get a good harvest, you must first choose a place correctly. This place is suitable for dry mushrooms, a place protected from sun color and cold winds. Consider the main stages.
- We form ridges.We submerge them just below ground level, in the resulting grooves we fall asleep drainage layer in the form of expanded clay, clay shards, etc. We lay grass and pour fertilizer. Ridges for champignons must be prepared in the fall, so that a favorable mycelium environment will form over the winter.
- Preparing compost for planting. The perfect compost recipe is soaked straw mixed in equal proportions with horse manure. In the resulting "fragrant" mixture, you must add ammonium nitrate, gypsum and superphosphate. The proportions of the ingredients in the mixture depend on the size of your future mushroom plantation. 10 kg of straw and dung, 350 g of saltpeter, 850 g of gypsum and 200 g of superphosphate will be enough for a small bed. We place all this splendor in a compost pit and we stand, stirring about once every 5 days, for 20 days.
- We make holes in the beds of about 5 cm at a distance of 15 cm from each other and plant mycelium. Put the compost mixture on top and tamp down a little. Some gardeners plant mycelium mixed with other crops, such as zucchini, saving space in the garden and providing additional shade for the mushrooms.
- After the appearance of the first silvery sprout it is necessary to cover the beds (not ramming!) With wet sod or loam. Do not allow the soil to dry out and fluctuate temperatures.
If you did everything correctly, then the first harvest of fresh mushrooms can be harvested within 30-40 days from the date of planting.
Champignons in bags
Experienced mushroom growers recommend using large plastic bags for growing mushrooms. This method is convenient primarily for its mobility - bags of mycelium can be neatly transferred to any place.
The stages of cultivation are as follows.
- A nutrient substrate consisting of 70% manure (preferably horse) and a 25% compost mixture is prepared. If there is no horse manure, it is better to replace it with chicken manure.
- We disinfect the substrate by heating (possible on the fire) to 25 ° C.
- We spread the mixture into bags (50 kg bags of sugar can be used) 25-30 cm thick and plant mycelium.Store the bag in a warm, humid place without access to direct sunlight.
Growing mushrooms in the basement
The basement or cellar is the best place for growing mushrooms. Lighting in this case is not required, the champignon is best of all growing in complete darkness.
For the cultivation of mushrooms must comply with the following conditions.
- Ensuring supply and exhaust ventilation. Do not trust the ventilation of the basement of the open windows - drafts are not useful for mushrooms.
- Mandatory disinfection of the room.
- Install a thermometer in the basement to monitor the temperature and the heating system. Take care of air humidification - you can use a sprinkler or install a special humidifier. Remember, the temperature of the formation of the mycelium - 23-25 ° C.
With the right approach, after 3 weeks you will have the first harvest.
Growing mushrooms in the greenhouse
In the summer, our greenhouses occupy the usual tomatoes / cucumbers / peppers. And any reasonable owner sometimes thinks about it - how can you take a greenhouse in winter? The use of greenhouses for the winter growing of vegetables is unprofitable because of the high costs of heating and lighting.
And if the heat supply system can be relatively inexpensive - there is enough wood stove, then electricity will cost you a lot of money in the winter. Fungi, in contrast to greens, do not require light.
Therefore, to grow mushrooms in the greenhouse - a great idea, subject to the following nuances.
- Proper heating system. Optimally water - it does not dry out the climate.
- The greenhouse must be insulated and sealed. Any draft in cold winter is deadly for mycelium.
- In the greenhouse it is necessary to organize an artificial ventilation system.
- You must install a humidifier or provide access to water to allow manual spraying. Ideally, install a steam generator.
- Do not allow direct sunlight. The greenhouse can be veiled with tarpaulin or other material at hand.
- It is necessary to install racks for containers with mushrooms.
Other options for growing mushrooms
Above, we looked at the most well-known and affordable methods of artificial cultivation of champignons. There are still examples of mushrooming at home in basins or, conversely, high-tech cultivation according to Dutch technology - on the shelves.
This method is implemented in large enterprises. Production premises are used more efficiently. Racks for champignons - these are the same beds, only in several levels. Blocks or containers are placed on the shelves.
There are two of the most famous recipes for the preparation of a nutrient mixture for mushrooms.
Mixture number 1
The number of ingredients is as follows:
- blood meal - 100 kg;
- superphosphate - 4.2 kg;
- gypsum - 10 kg;
- potassium sulphate - 4.2 kg;
- chalk - 14.5 kg.
Add trace elements: zinc sulfate - 23.62 g, potassium bromide - 4.7 g, manganese sulfate - 270 g, ferrous sulfate - 226 g, copper sulfate - 70.3747 g, boric acid - 23.7 g, chromium sulfate - 0.9 g, potassium iodide - 5.5 g
It is obvious that to prepare a mixture of such a composition at home is almost unreal. Therefore, the most common is another recipe for compost.
Mixture number 2
- manure (ideally horse) or bird droppings - 100 kg;
- straw (wheat is better) - 100 kg;
- superphosphate - 2 kg;
- chalk - 5 kg;
- gypsum - 8 kg;
- carbamide (urea) - 5 kg.
This recipe is simpler and is suitable for composting at home.
Prepare compost on a site isolated from the ground. We isolate it by any means — we concrete, lay with rubber, etc. Before soaking, mix straw with manure. Place in a cooked container and carefully cover with rain. Insist for 20 days, stirring after 6, then after 4, then after another 5 days and the last time - after 4 days.
Spreading compost and care for mycelium
The resulting compost mixture should be poured into molding boxes with a depth of 20-25 centimeters, the sizes of the boxes are selected based on the size of the shelves or places in the beds. The temperature of the compost must be constantly monitored. After the container is turned over and laid out on a bed, in a container, bag or box.
The application of the mycelium is done only after the compost temperature is lowered to +24 ° C. Immediately after sowing, the temperature rises slightly, which additionally stimulates the spore germination.
One m2 requires 600-800 g of mycelium, before sowing it needs to be heated and crushed. The mycelium is laid in pits with a diameter of about 5 cm, the location of the pits should be chess. Top covered with a small layer of compost.
After germination of the first threads, it is effective to lay a layer of special soil, from 1 to 3 cm thick. Ordinary gardening will not work, it is better to use a mixture of limestone (1 part), peat (5 parts) and ordinary soil (4 parts). This process is called gobbirovka. The coating layer must be sterile.
On top of the boxes with the future mushrooms covered with plastic wrap.
If you have done everything correctly and the mycelium has taken root, the first silvery threads of sprouted mycelium will appear in a week. During this period, slightly loosen the covering layer. When the first fungi appear, we reduce the ambient air temperature to 15-17 ° С. Humidity should be at least 80%.
A full harvest can be harvested within 2-3 weeks after sowing. Mushrooms ripen in waves, at intervals of a week. It is imperative to collect all the ripe mushrooms - this will accelerate the appearance of the second layer, besides the old mushrooms provoke diseases. The first three collections give about 70% of the total yield.
One landing of the mycelium is enough for about 6-7 waves. After the 7th wave the compost is removed, it will serve as an excellent fertilizer for all garden plants. Boxes are subject to disinfection.
Useful tips and tricks
If you decide to start breeding champignons, initially decide whether you are pursuing commercial goals or simply growing mushrooms to the family table.
On this basis, choose a method for growing.
In any case, carefully consider the preparation of all components of the process.
- Compost mixture should be made strictly according to the recipe. If you want to get a good harvest - start preparing the compost yourself, the store mix sometimes has very low quality. Do not be lazy to look for horse manure or bird droppings.
- Choosing a room for growing, do not forget to disinfect it. The most common method of disinfection is whitewashing of the ceiling, walls, all surfaces of the limestone with copper sulfate (copper sulfate) added to it.
- Carefully consider the choice of mycelium. Different types of champignons are better suited for different premises, pay attention to the packaging.
- Do not forget to maintain all atmospheric conditions.
- Do not cut ripe mushrooms - there is a high risk of infection entering the soil. How to "twist" them.
Growing champignons at home for beginners is a process that requires a conscious attitude.At any stage of the technology, it is possible to lose both the future harvest and all investments associated with it. Take it seriously, even if this is your hobby, and the result will not be long in coming, and a white delicious velvet mushroom will decorate the table at any time of the year!