Indian industry - history, features and interesting facts
India is one of the largest countries in the world. Its area reaches 3.2 million km2with a population of 1.010 billion people, which allows it to occupy the second largest place in the world. Speaking about the economic situation in India, it is worth noting that it is contradictory. The country has enormous potential: deposits of minerals, reputable scientists and the high development of the technical industry. However, there are some constraints. This explains the plight of citizens (⅔ of the world's poor live in India).
History of the development of industry in India (briefly)
Under the influence of various factors on the territory of the country, the development of industry and agriculture proceeded unequally. The southern part of the country was influenced by the British for a long time. This was the impetus for the beginning of industrial development at the beginning of the last century.The northern regions were free from foreign influences, and therefore folk local customs are here and now. This adversely affected the economic development of the north.
Another factor that caused the consequences was the policy of isolationism carried out in the 50s of the 20th century. At this time, coal mining and the metallurgical industry developed in western India, but non-competitiveness led to their gradual decline. Now in this region the emphasis is on private business.
A heavy blow to the development of industry in India and the economy as a whole was dealt with in the period from the 1950s to the 1980s. This was the time of the policy of import substitution, the result of which affected the low technological development.
Now the country's industry is still at the stage of the recovery process, but a positive trend is already noticeable. The following industries are developing in India:
Each of these industries deserves a detailed study.
Light industry enterprises
First of all, you should pay attention to the light industry, as it is considered the traditional economic sector of India.For the most part it is represented by jute and cotton production.
In terms of jute production India was able to reach the first place in the world. The largest enterprises are located in Calcutta. It produces carpets, furniture fabrics, packaging and technical materials.
Cotton fabrics are produced by factories located in almost all major cities of the country. Paper products are produced in Bombay and Ahmedabad.
In addition, India produces a large number of wool, silk and synthetic fabrics.
Handicraft production of tableware and garments is developed. It is significant that the export volume of clothing and textile industry in India is about 25%.
In the food industry involved dozens of enterprises that produce products for internal use and for export.The first product that comes to mind at the mention of India is tea. Large tea fields and processing plants are concentrated in the southern regions of the country and in Calcutta. A large part of the population is employed in this industry. In terms of tea production, the country occupies a leading position throughoutthe world.
Crop production is widely developed in India. The area under crop reaches 140 million hectares. However, there are some problems in this area. Irrigation is carried out only on 40% of the acreage, forests are reduced. Most of the cultivated land is occupied by food crops. This is rice, corn and wheat.
Much attention is paid to technical crops, including tobacco, jute, oil plants (peanuts and canola), tobacco. In some regions there are plantations of bananas and coconut palms, pineapples, citrus trees, mangoes, and all sorts of plants from which spices are obtained.
Livestock farms are practically absent, domestic animals (buffalo, camels) are used as tractive force when working in the fields. Milk and skins of farm animals are used in parallel.
Processing companies of the agricultural industry and agriculture of India are located near the fields or farms. They are presented in the form of factories for the processing of cotton, peanuts or sugar cane, as well as enterprises engaged in freezing meat (on farms).
Heavy industry enterprises are crucial for the development of the Indian economy.
The development of coal deposits takes place in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh. Ore reserves are estimated at approximately 51 billion tons. This mineral is mined in almost 500 mines and coal pits.
Iron ore is common in Orissa, Bihar, western Maharashtra, so here the population is occupied in the mines. Limestone is also mined in this area.
In India, a huge amount of deposits of lead, iron and manganese ores, which are used in metallurgy, has been discovered.
The country has modest reserves of zinc, copper, tin, precious stones and building materials (graphite, dolomite). Bihar gives small amounts of uranium.
As for the processing metallurgical enterprises, they are compactly located on the Kota-Nagpur plateau. After independence, these plants were nationalized or built by the state.
The number of enterprises engaged in this industry is limited, but much attention is paid to its development.
Factories and factories in large cities produce mineral fertilizers.
In the past few years, interest in petrochemistry has increased. As part of the development program is the production of plastics, resins, synthetic rubber, chemical fibers.
It would be wrong to ignore such an industry as the nuclear industry in India. Moreover, this country ranks 10th in the world in the number of atomic reactors. At the moment there are 22 of them in India. Indian scientists gained interest in atomic energy back in 1964. It’s pretty easy to explain. With such a population, the country needs a huge amount of energy, which could not be obtained from natural resources.
Now India has overcome many difficulties that have arisen in the development of industry and agriculture. The country managed to achieve high performance. Despite this, there are still factors hindering progress in the country.