Japanese doll. Dolls for girls
Japanese doll for the inhabitants of the country of the Rising Sun - is more than just a child's toy. For thousands of years they were not toys at all, but were considered works of art. Japanese old chronicles describe the skill of craftsmen, and their names have become legends for the people.
Initially, the Japanese doll was just a ritual product and depicted gods or dead people. The first mention of their production of straw and clay, as well as rituals with them, dates back to the 6th century BC. er The ancient Japanese made figurines amulets that were supposed to protect them from misfortune, restore health and protect the family. They sincerely believed that the spirit of the deity infused itself in ningyo (doll, human form) and helps those who request it.
Over time, handicraft production grew into real cultural centers, which were created by Japanese traditional dolls, taking into account the specifics and customs of the area. Such centers still exist in several prefectures of Japan.
If earlier for the production of dolls used wood, straw or clay, and later porcelain, then modern craftsmen make them out of silicone. To distinguish them from real children is very difficult.
Until now, the Japanese doll is distributed according to its functional features:
- Dolls for girls that can be held in their hands, that is, toys.
- A work of art that is exhibited on public display only on certain days.
The art of creating Japanese dolls has gone beyond the borders of the country, and now, if desired, everyone can make a traditional paper toy and please themselves and loved ones with their skills.
The Japanese doll Kokesi dates back a thousand years ago, although it received its official name in the 17th century, being well-known by the people as a memorial figure.
Once it was cut out of wood, later began to grind on a lathe. It consists of a cylindrical body and head. There are several options for its origin. According to one version, it looked like figures made by shamans for the rites of worshiping spirits, who patronized families or their crafts.
According to another, they were given the appearance of a girl and used as a commemorative doll when they were forced to get rid of the baby in the family because of need. Since the girl was unwanted, the products were made to look like she was a symbol of loss.
Maybe because of its history, Kokessi, although it looks like a toy, does not belong to the category of "children's dolls", therefore, is more loved and revered by the adult generation of Japanese.
Depending on the location, each Kokesi doll has its own original “look” and painting in “clothes”. Real connoisseurs can accurately determine in which province and with what master she was carved.
The famous traditional doll Daruma is considered an ancient prototype of the well-known doll. This toy has its own intricate legend, according to which Daruma was a monk who spent 9 years in a cave in a state of meditation. Since he did not move all this time, his arms and legs "fell off", and in honor of his religious "feat" a toy was created without legs and arms.
Daruma doll is incredibly popular among the Japanese as a ritual Christmas toy for making wishes. She is called Daruma all-powerful and is considered the family's guardian angel for the whole new year. In order for Daruma to fulfill the desire, there is a special ritual.
Since the doll is created with closed eyes, then by drawing it a pupil, opening its “sight” to it, you can ask her about anything, promising to make a “sighted” second eye in case of fulfillment of the desire. In the event that the desire did not come true, Daruma is burned for the next year and a new patron is bought.
Regardless of whether the requests of their owners are fulfilled by the Daruma or not, these children's dolls are loved by all Japanese. They are considered charms and are most often made of wood or papier-mâché.
Japanese articulated dolls, which appeared on sale in the early 90s, made a real revolution in the production of toys. They are released from polyurethane, although people uninformed call this material rubber.
It is stronger and more dense, it looks like porcelain, but at the same time it is very solid. Each manufacturer prefers its own polyurethane composition, but otherwise the articulated dolls for girls are very similar:
- In Japan, there is a single standard of growth for articulated dolls, which means 5 sizes - from 9 cm to 70 cm and more.
- All moving parts (arms, legs, head) are connected by hinges connected by elastic bands.
- The head of the hinge doll can consist of several parts, which include a wig, eyes that can be changed at will.
- They can be sold with clothing, shoes and accessories.
The hinged figure is more of a hobby than a child's toy. The cheapest Japanese hinge doll costs from $ 200, and its size will be quite small. Dolls made to order, can cost up to $ 1000, they are made by hand.
For collectors, there are special sets of hinged Japanese dolls.
- The basic set implies only the torso with the head and the complete absence of eyes, makeup, a wig and clothes. It costs less and is purchased by real connoisseurs, who prefer to give such a doll the features that they like best.
- A fullset is a finished doll with clothes, shoes and a “face” that cannot be modified. It is an order of magnitude more than the basic set.
- Short-run dolls are the dream of any collector. They are produced in limited quantities in a complete set, to which fashionable accessories can be added. For an additional fee you can purchase a sleeping doll head. This expensive pleasure does not stop real connoisseurs and lovers of dolls. The limited works also include figurines - copies of famous people.
When ordering more expensive sets, the client has the right to choose the color of eyes and hair, which is not the case when purchasing a basic set.
Ningyo doll is a paper bookmark made in the form of a girl. This popular type of origami is available today for everyone, and such a “toy” can be made for yourself in a matter of minutes.
Paper Ningyo in Japan are not only bookmarks, but also the first toys of little girls to play “daughter-mothers”. Make such Japanese dolls with their own hands will not be difficult, even for a beginner. This will require:
- cardboard for the head and neck;
- colored kimono paper;
- crepe black paper for hair;
- a rectangular piece of plain paper for a kimono belt;
Originally, these dolls were made from straw or paper for a cleansing ritual. The Japanese believed that if a toy was blown and then held all over it, the disease, misfortune, or "evil eye" could leave the person. The used Ningyo should have been thrown into the river so that it took away all the problems.
Traditional ninge dolls can be made of porcelain and personify the imperial court, along with courtiers and utensils of the Heian period.Such dolls are exhibited once a year at the girls ’holiday and are usually passed on from mother to daughter.
Girls Festival and Puppet Festival
The real exhibition of Japanese dolls is held on the traditional holiday of girls (Hinamatsuri) on March 3. All the little Japanese women are waiting for this event, since it is on this day that stands with shelves are installed in their houses, on which they carefully put up the entire imperial puppet family together with the courtiers.
The girls and their mothers visit each other, show their collections of dolls, eat sweets and drink syrodzake, a low-alcohol sweet sake.
Since childhood, this tradition has taught girls how to behave in society, instilling the rules of behavior and etiquette.
Another tradition, very beloved by all Japanese, is the puppet bazaar, which is held in February, on the eve of the Day of Girls. It is here that acquire everything you need for the stand and to update its exhibits.
Japanese doll Fukuruma is a prototype of Russian nesting dolls. According to the official version, it appeared in the 17th century and represented 7 gods of wealth, good luck and prosperity entering each other.
Fukuruma is the prototype of the long-headed god Fukurokuju, who was revered as bringing wealth and wisdom to people. Inside it were placed the remaining 6 gods of fortune, and according to tradition, by pulling them out, one could request help in business.
In some provinces of Japan, Fukuruma had the appearance of a samurai, inside of which his entire family was “confined”. These toys were made from different varieties of trees and painted with bright colors.
Absolutely amazing art - is the creation of dolls from flowers. The Japanese in this case use chrysanthemums. These flowers have been grown in the country for more than 400 years, and from 1804 dolls were made from them.
The festival of flower figures is traditionally held in the fall and gathers thousands of fans of this art from around the world.
To create floral masterpieces, masters have been learning this for many years and pass on their skills either by inheritance or to talented students.
Several specialists take part in the creation of each doll:
- one creates a sketch of the doll;
- the second makes a wooden frame and "body";
- the third - the most difficult part of the work - wraps around each piece of the construction with flowers.
So that the chrysanthemums are not dead, they are dug up with roots, covered with moist moss and attached to the frame. The annual bright spectacle pleases the audience and once again demonstrates the skill of the Japanese puppeteers.
Modern Japanese Dolls
Modern Japanese masters create so realistic dolls that they are difficult to distinguish from living children. A Japanese silicone doll in the form of a baby can cry, laugh, go to the toilet, which allows little Japanese women to feel like a mother.
Dolls depicting anime characters are also in great demand. Since they are made with hinges, they can “repeat” the movements of their cartoon prototypes. This is especially liked by children.