Logistics - what is it? Transport and warehouse logistics. Logistics tasks
What is logistics? What it is? There are as many answers to these questions as there are experts in this field. Currently, there are an immeasurable number of specialists who relate their own activities to the field of logistics or only wish to register themselves as logisticians. Today, the sphere of logistics is not just a highly paid activity, but above all a high social status, an advantageous position in society.
Logistics - what is it? Stages of the formation of scientific knowledge
To understand the meaning of the term “logistics”, it suffices to consider the chronology of its formation. The initial stage of development of logistics is characterized by the birth of basic scientific principles. Perhaps it is for this reason that the concept itself in the modern sense appeared much later.The merchants of antiquity understood under the logistics of knowledge about the favorable movement of goods within the settlements, as well as between cities and neighboring states.
The second stage of the formation of logistics involves the application of its scientific achievements in the military sphere. Proceeding from this, the bulk of the ancient logistical concepts belongs to the authorship of military theorists. The top-priority tasks here were the search for opportunities to supply the army with food supplies, ammunition, and the creation of the material and technical base of paramilitary formations.
The modern stage of concept formation considers logistics as finding the best options for coordinating the movement and processing of raw materials, finding solutions for packaging, warehousing and delivery of products to the final consumer. In the current understanding of logistics covers a wide range of activities, starting with the processing of raw materials, inventory control, demand forecasting and ending with the development of effective marketing mechanisms.
Basic views on the concept
A common approach is to consider logistics as a worldview on business activities through costs that need reliable control and optimization.
Naturally, there are quite a few narrower views on logistics, for example, the management of finances, information, and material and technical resources. However, such formulations do not address other numerous aspects of logistics. Therefore, it is more reasonable to consider scientific knowledge as a study on the planning, management, control, and organization of the movement of material values, as well as information in the organization’s business process environment.
The main task of logistics is to organize an effective, integrated system for controlling the functioning of information and material flows, the result of the movement of which is to ensure the smooth supply of certain types of products.
The use of logistics allows the company to adapt as much as possible to the existing market environment, increase the share of profits and gain obvious advantages over direct competitors.
Logistics tasks are also aimed at meeting the specific needs of certain groups of consumers. Indicators of the effectiveness of logistics in this case are the speed and timeliness of deliveries, availability of products for the target audience.Based on data on consumer interest, logistics allows you to create a supply chain.
How versatile is logistics? What is it in the modern sense? If we talk about maintaining consumer standards, then here come to the first place the functions of ensuring the specified quality of products, services and distribution.
The logistics functions in the field of transportation management relate to ensuring the processes of loading and unloading of the goods being moved, their delivery, and related operations.
A separate function of logistics is the so-called operational management, which involves the management of material, information and production resources. Operational management is based on reducing the duration of production cycles and increasing profits.
Today, transport, production, purchasing, information, customs, distribution, and warehouse logistics occupy the main place in the activities of enterprises.
- Production logistics is aimed at the provision of material services and the organization of consumer goods.The principles of production logistics exclude interaction in the structure of the enterprise on the basis of contracts. All decisions here are purely managerial in nature.
- Logistics supply (purchasing logistics) - solves the problem of creating the material and raw materials bases of enterprises. An integral part of the procurement process is careful planning of deliveries and logistics management.
- Sales logistics - allows you to optimize the processes for the sale of finished products. This function is considered as a separate area of research aimed at the favorable distribution of material, information, service, financial flows between individual groups of consumers.
- Transport logistics - solves the problems of management of material flows in specific transport sections. According to studies, the cost of transporting products in our country is about 50% of the cost of its production. Reducing the cost of moving the required number of products with the choice of optimal routes and minimal costs remains the most important task that transport logistics is addressing.
- Customs logistics - is aimed at the effective application of the achievements of the basic methods of scientific knowledge when it is necessary to reduce costs in the case of moving raw materials, components or finished products across the border.
- Information logistics - optimizes the movement of information flows. It is a comprehensive area for all functional areas of logistics.
- Warehouse logistics - solves the problem of storing, processing, receiving and shipping products. Allows you to keep the "frozen profits" in proper condition for marketing.
Differences between logistics and forwarding activities
Undoubtedly, the logistics profession is inextricably linked with freight forwarding activities. However, unlike logistics, freight forwarding is limited to managing the movement of goods, their support and delivery to objects.
In turn, the logistics department is much wider. As a rule, logisticians carry out orders of commercial organizations, companies and enterprises, trying on the functions of freight forwarders, while simultaneously managing information and material resources.
Who is a logistician?
The main task of a specialist in the field of logistics is to analyze the situation on the market, determine the interests of the consumer and coordinate the activities of production and consumer units. In fact, such specialists are the entire logistics department, where the organization of routes for the movement of material flows with the minimization of costs in each sector of the logistics chain comes to the fore.
The decisive professional requirement for a logistician is the presence of the skills of a financier, because such specialist performs the bulk of time with calculations. Important for the logistics is knowledge of jurisprudence, since the divergence of activity with the letter of the law is fraught with penalties, costs, loss of funds and as a result - causing losses to a commercial organization.
The logistics profession is subject to mobile, communicative individuals with developed analytical thinking, who not only know how to work independently, but also display creative thinking.
Significant logistics problems
What problems does logistics face? What is it in the understanding of modern business? Today, logistics is aimed at resolving the following number of problems:
- search for opportunities to ensure the maximum compliance of information and material flows;
- ensuring control over material flows and timely transfer of data on their movement to information logistics centers;
- developing optimal strategies for moving products and materiel;
- identification of effective ways to regulate the movement of goods;
- packaging standardization;
- finding differences between the capabilities and requirements of production and procurement.
Achievements in solving the above problems are measured by concrete results, which are demonstrated by logistics. Reviews of the application of logistic methods by enterprises show that the key to high results is the presence of necessary products with a given quality and volume in the right place at the lowest cost.
Individual enterprises have their own view on the organization of production. Some have their own logistics department, others use the services of third-party transport organizations.
However, the most promising approach to the organization of production and commercial activities is the use of knowledge of specialized logistics companies.Experienced experts in the field of logistics are able not only to organize a streamlined structure of logistics activities, but also to improve the efficiency of the business as a whole, mainly by setting the right tasks.