Nuclear submarines of Russia: the number. Multipurpose nuclear submarines of Russia
Submarines make up the backbone of Russia's naval armament. They are able to perform a number of strategic tasks. They are used to destroy enemy ships, various underwater and surface objects, as well as hitting targets in the coastal waters of the enemy. In addition, they are able to quietly perform combat missions and leave the temporary deployment sites. It is believed that the submarine fleets of the Russian Federation and the United States are the strongest, and these powers share the palm in domination over the World Ocean.
How the nuclear submarine fleet was born
In the middle of the last century, in 1954, the Nautilus, which is considered to be the first nuclear submarine launched by the USA, was launched. The development of the SSN 571 submarine was conducted from 1946, and in 1949 its construction began.The basis for the design was the German military submarine of the 27th series, the design of which the Americans changed beyond recognition and installed a nuclear power plant in it. Until the beginning of 1960, the production of the first submarines of the project EB 253-A, better known as the Skate submarines, was launched.
After only 5 years, at the beginning of 1959, project 627 appeared, which became the first nuclear submarine of the Soviet Union. She immediately adopted by the Navy. Shortly thereafter, the Soviet designers developed the 667-A project, which was originally conceived for use as a submarine missile cruiser to carry out strategic tasks (SSBN). Actually, the adoption of the 667s into service as combat units is considered to be the beginning of the development of the 2nd generation of atomic submarines of the USSR.
In 1970 of the last century, the 667-B project was adopted and approved in the Union. It was a submarine, called "Moray". It was equipped with a powerful naval BRK (missile ballistic complex) "D-9" intercontinental use. Following this submarine, the Murena-M (project 667-BD) appeared, and already in 1976, the Soviet fleet received the first series of submarine missile carriers, the project 667-BDR.They were armed with missiles that had separable warheads.
About the third generation of Soviet submarines
Further development of the submarines of the leading countries was carried out in such a way that the design was based on silent propellers and some changes in the hull. So, in 1980, the first shock-type submarine appeared, which became the project of 949 III generation. To perform a number of strategic tasks, torpedoes and cruise missiles were used on it.
A little later, the 667-AT project appeared, the flagship of which was the nuclear submarine K423. She was adopted in 1986 by the Soviet fleet. It is also worth noting that this project managed to live to this day. Like other nuclear submarines of Russia, the K695 model of the 667 is among the operating combat units of the fleet.
It should be noted, and created in 1977, the Soviet submarine. They were a modification of the project 667 ─ 671 RTM, which until the end of 1991 were built 26 units. Soon after, the first domestic multi-purpose submarines were created, the hull of which was made of titanium ─ Bars-971 and 945, known as the Barracuda.
Half a century ─ many or few?
The submarine fleet of the Russian Federation has 76 submarines of various classes, including SSBN, AMPL (multipurpose), diesel, and special purpose vessels.The question of how many nuclear submarines in Russia can be answered in this way: there are 47 of them. It should be noted that this is a very large number, since the construction of a single nuclear submarine today costs the state over $ 1 billion. If we take into account the ships that are being re-equipped and in ship-repair cords, then the number of nuclear submarines in Russia will be 49. For comparison, we will present some data on the submarines armed with superpowers. The American submarine fleet has 71 submarines, and the UK and France have 10 units each.
Nuclear heavy cruiser-missile carriers
The largest and most dangerous from the point of view of the defeat of enemy force and destructive ability are considered heavy missile carriers. Such nuclear submarines of Russia in service are in the amount of 3 units. Among them are the bomber "Dmitry Donskoy" (heavy cruiser TK208), and also "Vladimir Monomakh". They were built according to the project 945. Their weapons are represented by the Bulava missile system.
The Akula-class cruiser TK-17, which is part of the 941UM project, is in service with the submarine fleet and is called the Arkhangelsk.The boat TK-20 is called Severstal, and it was also built according to this project. One of the reasons for their failure is the shortage of P-39 ballistic missiles. We also note that these vessels are among the largest in the world, and their total displacement is about 50 thousand tons.
In early 2013, the flag was raised on the K-535 submarine (Project 955 Borey), which received the name of Yury Dolgoruky. This submarine became the head submarine missile cruiser of the Northern Fleet. Less than a year, as in December, the Pacific Fleet was armed with the K-550. This submarine is named after Alexander Nevsky. All boats are strategic rocket carriers of the fourth generation.
Strategic nuclear submarines "Dolphin"
The project 667-BDRM is represented by 6 nuclear submarines of the Russian Navy:
- "Bryansk" ─ К117;
- "Verkhoturye" ─ K51;
- "Yekaterinburg" ─ K84;
- Karelia ─ К118;
- "Novomoskovsk" ─ К407;
- "Tula" ─ К114.
In mid-1999, the nuclear cruiser K64 ceased to be an active unit of the Navy and was removed from service. All nuclear submarines of Russia (some photos can be seen above), which are part of the project, are in service with the Northern MF.
Project 667-BDR.Nuclear boats "Kalmar"
In terms of their numbers in the navy, modern Kalmar-class nuclear submarines of Russia are right behind the Dolphins. Construction of boats on the project 667BDR began even before the beginning of 1980 in the USSR, so most of the submarines have already been decommissioned and become unusable. As of today, only 3 units of such submarine cruisers are in service with the Russian fleet:
- "Ryazan" ─ K44;
- "St. George the Victorious" ─ К433;
- "Podolsk" ─ K223.
All submarines are in service with the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Federation. The “youngest” of them is considered to be “Ryazan”, since it was commissioned later than the rest, at the end of 1982.
Multipurpose nuclear submarines of Russia, which were assembled according to project 971, are considered the most numerous in their class (“Pike-B”). They are capable of destroying targets in the coastal waters, on the coast, as well as hitting underwater structures and objects located on the surface of the water. The Northern and Pacific fleets are equipped with 11 submarines of this type. However, 3 of them for various reasons will no longer be exploited. For example, the nuclear submarine "Shark" is not used at all, and "Barnaul" and "Bars" have already been transferred for recycling. The submarine "Nerpa" K152 from 2012 under the contract was sold to India.Later it was handed over to the Indian Navy.
Project 949A. Multi-purpose submarine "Antey"
Nuclear submarines of the Russian project 949A are present in the amount of 3 units and are part of the Northern Fleet. 5 submarines "Antey" are in service with the Pacific Fleet. When this submarine was conceived, it was supposed to put into operation 18 units. However, the lack of funding made itself felt, so only 11 of them were launched.
Today, the Russian nuclear submarines of the Antey class are in service with a fleet of 8 combat units. A few years ago, the Krasnoyarsk K173 and Krasnodar K178 submarines were sent for disassembly and disposed of. September 12, 2000, a tragedy occurred in the waters of the Barents Sea, which took the life of 118 Russian sailors. On this day, the APRK of the Antey Project 949A Kursk K141 sank.
Multi-purpose nuclear submarine "Condor", "Barracuda" and "Pike"
From the beginning of the 80s to the 90s 4 boats were built, which were projects 945 and 945A. They received the name "Barracuda" and "Condor". According to the 945 draft, the nuclear submarines Kostroma B276 and Karp B239 were built. With regard to the project 945A, then it was created "Nizhny Novgorod" B534, as well as "Pskov" B336, originally put into service with the Northern Fleet.All 4 submarines are still in service.
Also in service there are 4 submarines of the multipurpose project "Schuka" 671RTMK, among which are:
- Obninsk ─ Б138;
- Petrozavodsk ─ B338;
- "Tambov" ─ B448;
- "Daniel of Moscow" ─ B414.
The Ministry of Defense plans to write off these boats and replace them with combat units of a completely new class.
APL 885 type "Ash"
To date, the SSGN "Severodvinsk" is the only existing submarine of this class. June 17 last year at the K-560 held a solemn raising of the flag. Within the next 5 years it is planned to create and launch another 7 such vessels. The construction of the Kazan, Krasnoyarsk and Novosibirsk submarines is already in full swing. If the Severodvinsk is a project of 885, then the remaining boats will be created according to the draft of an improved modification of the 885M.
As for weapons, the Yasen submarines will be equipped with supersonic Caliber type cruise missiles. The firing range of these missiles can be 2.5 thousand km, and they are high-precision projectiles, whose main task will be the destruction of enemy aircraft carriers. It is also planned that the submarine "Kazan" will be equipped with fundamentally new equipment that has not previously been used in the development of underwater vehicles.Moreover, according to a number of technical characteristics, primarily due to the minimum noise level, it will be very difficult to detect such a submarine. In addition, this multipurpose submarine will compete with the American SSN575 Seawolf.
At the end of November 2012, tests of the Caliber missile system were carried out. Shooting was carried out from the submerged submarine "Severodvinsk" at ground targets from a distance of 1.4 thousand km. In addition, a supersonic Onyx rocket was launched. The missile launches were successful and proved the expediency of their use.