Orenburg region: nature, attractions, interesting facts.
Orenburg region is considered one of the largest regions in Russia. It stretched across the Southern Urals, capturing the spurs of the Southern Urals and part of the Trans-Urals. The pristine nature of the Orenburg region and the fresh air just beckon tourists.
General historical information
In antiquity in the territory of the present Orenburg region lived nomadic tribes of the Bashkirs and Kazakhs. These lands were conquered by the Mongol-Tatars and for some time belonged to the Golden Horde (XIII century).
In the 18th century, when the accession of Kazakhstan to Russia began, the Orenburg steppes began to be mastered by the Russians. To protect the southern borders of the Russian Empire, the Orenburg Cossack army was created.
Initially, in 1735, Orenburg was laid as a fortress at the confluence of two rivers - Ori and Ural, but five years later it was decided to create it at a new place, downstream the Ural River, on Krasnaya Gorka.The name was kept the same, and the old town became known as the Orsk fortress (the modern city of Orsk).
Having existed at the new place for three years, in 1743 Orenburg was again transferred, this time to the place of the Berd fortress. The city on Krasnaya Gorka was named Krasnogorsk fortress (now there is the village Krasnogor), and Orenburg until the middle of the XIX century was the main fortress of the border line.
Orenburg was the center of trade between Russia, Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Here were Manova and Gostiny Dvor, worked customs. With the beginning of the construction of the railway between Samara and Orenburg (1877), the woodworking, flour milling, leather, butter-making and other industries began to develop, railway workshops opened. In 1938, Orenburg was renamed the city of Chkalov, but in 1957 it was returned to its former name.
Resources and nature of the Orenburg region
The territory occupied by the Orenburg region is mostly rocky, sandy or grassy steppes. The forests here occupy only about 4.5% of the entire territory and consist mainly of oaks, birch, linden and maple, pines are a little less common.
More than 80 species of animals (beavers, elks, wild boars, badgers, foxes, less often bears, etc.), about 280 species of birds (hazel grouse, woodpecker, wood grouse, black grouse, etc.) and more than 60 species of fish (the most numerous of them - the carp family).
Oil, gas, non-ferrous and rare metals, rock salt, limestone, clay, etc. are mined here. There are sources of various mineral waters that are useful in their chemical composition.
The region has in its territory 510 protected natural objects. Among the monuments of nature of the Orenburg region are many mountains, cliffs, cliffs, there are even volcanoes, as well as reserves, lakes, springs and other interesting places. Briefly consider some of them.
Lake Camber in Sol-Iletsk
Sol-Iletsk is a kind of resort. Here are salt and mud lakes, which every summer take thousands of people who come to improve their health. The most famous among them is Lake Disorder.
Earlier, a mountain was in its place, but at the beginning of the 18th century, salt began to be mined here, and by the end of the next century a huge ditch was formed instead. A little later it flooded, and the collapse was formed - such a kind of salt mine.
The lake water is very saturated with salt and its composition is similar to the waters of the famous Dead Sea.People come here to treat rheumatism, asthma, skin and joint diseases. Now they continue to extract salt in these places and supply it to all the stores in Russia.
Holy spring in Kuzlakh
This hydrogeological monument is located in Upper Kuzlakh, to the northeast of the village of Maksimovka, Ponomarevsky District, Orenburg Region. Nature has created a powerful spring here that pierced a rather large depression in the slope (10 x 20 meters). For local residents, the source is considered sacred (an icon is installed) and healing, having an antibacterial effect. The composition of water is carbonate-magnesium-calcium. The spring is well equipped: enclosed with a fence, a gazebo is installed, pipes are laid to drain the water.
A famous landmark of the Orenburg region is the stone camel, or Camel Mountain. According to one of the legends, many years ago, a caravan of nomads looking for more livable fertile lands passed through these lands. The road was long, but the endless steppes did not stop. Heat, fatigue and lack of water led to the fact that people and cattle, one after another began to fall dead.And in the end there was only one, the most resistant camel. He continued on his way no matter what, until he saw ahead the lush greenery growing along the bank of a meandering river. Before the last dash to the life-giving moisture, the camel sank to the ground to take a breath, but he did not get up anymore. The animal petrified in the steppe under the scorching sun.
The head of a camel is directed in that direction, where a stream flows to Aschesu, 8 kilometers away. According to legend, this is the very river that he saw. In fact, this mountain is a 20 meter remnant of a quartzite rock, over which nature has worked, and with the help of the steppe winds she made a camel. Today Camel Mountain is a unique natural monument of the Orenburg region, located near the border with Kazakhstan in the village of Vostochny.
The nature of the Noble forest is rich in oak plantations, whose age reaches 65-70 years. Less common here are birches, lindens and aspens. This largest oak forest is located in the Kurmanayevsky district of the Orenburg region. Monuments of nature in this area are not limited to oak plantations. Also have local meaning:
- The Danilovskaya Acute Lump ("Steeple") is a peaked peak, incorporating gray and dark gray gypsum-bearing clay.
- Big Sheehan is a limestone flat-topped hill.
- Oleniy ravine, in the rocks of which there is ocher pebble, phosphate rock, fauna of the Jurassic and Cretaceous period.
Also in the Kurmanayevsky district there is the Makarov ravine, Saprykin Garden, Pudovkin Sosnovy Bor, Tarpan cliffs and many more objects under the protection of the Ministry of Nature of the Orenburg region.
Samangul red stones
This is a small area in the steppe near the village of Kunakabay, on the surface of which red sandstones acted by weathering. The nature of the Orenburg region has worked on them for several millennia, and as a result, many niches and depressions of various shapes appeared. The height of these rocks in some places reaches 10 meters, and the length is about 2.5 kilometers.
This is one of the most interesting and beautiful places in the nature of the Orenburg region. For several decades it has been famous as an enchanted plot. Here various abnormal natural phenomena often occur.There are many legends about this place and about the village of Sara, which is located on a plateau. In bad weather, there are various visions. Perhaps the cause of frequent fogs, but it may not matter to them.
The Sarinsky Plateau is also unique due to the fact that its plain is located above the surrounding mountains, which creates interesting species. And in the village of the same name there is even a waterfall.
Here is another village - Karagay-Pokrovka, behind which is Karagai Bor. This place is also rich in its legends, one of which is connected with the fact that at night you can see a bride leaving the forest.
The second legend tells of an old expedition of geologists who disappeared in Karagai Bor. They still roam there at night, and sometimes locals and curious tourists can hear the hiking songs of geologists with a guitar by the fire.
On the edge of the village Karagay there is another mysterious place - this is a hill, on which no building can exist for a long time. There were a church and a club here, but today there are only ruins in which the wind walks and at night it is rather creepy.
The river flows through the territory of Bashkortostan and the Orenburg region and flows into the Ural River on the border of the city of Orenburg.It is a deep river with a fairly rapid flow, rapids and shallows. The water here is cold even in summer. Sakmara is one of the most popular rivers for rafting with a difficult, but at the same time very interesting route, passing which sometimes you can admire steep banks and cliffs.
Pike, catfish and chub are found in Sakmara. And on the banks you can meet a brown bear, lynx, squirrel and wood grouse. In addition to all this, the nature of the Orenburg region in these places can pamper the tourist with thickets of wild raspberries and cherries.
This is the youngest reserve in the northern part of the Kuvandyk district of the Orenburg region. The ridge on which the reserve is located is unique in the Urals, where limestone massifs of the Cambrian period are preserved. They are over 500 million years old. Now here are the remains of extinct marine animals and plants.