Plants and animals of the Red Book of the Bryansk region: a list and interesting facts
What is the Red Book when it was created and why is it named red? Probably, not everyone can answer these questions. Many people know that the names of animals and plants that are either dying out or on the verge of it are recorded in them, and only a few know the history of the creation of this book. The article will consider not only the history of the emergence of this book, but also which plants and animals are listed in the Red Book on the example of the Bryansk region.
Since the middle of the XIX century, in many countries of the world began to raise issues of migration of animals, birds and fish. The result was the conclusion of bilateral agreements relating to the regulation of fishing for oysters and fish in the North Sea, the protection of valuable birds and seals. In the 20th century, the first Conference on International Conservation of Nature was held.
Representatives of 17 countries took part in it, including the Russian academician Borodin I.P. The conference raised issues of the protection of animals and plants subject to extinction, and the Consultative Commission on Nature Protection was established at the international level. However, her ideas were not destined to be realized, prevented by two world wars.
Nature Conservation Activities
The Second World War ended and scientists from all over the world engaged in the natural sciences returned to the issues of environmental protection. They were preoccupied with information about the extinction of species of some animals and the reduction of their numbers. In 1948, a conference on the agenda was held in the French city of Fontainebleau, which addressed the issue of protecting nature and animals. With the support of UNESCO, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) was created and a decision was made, covering all countries, to prepare lists of animals and plants that were on the verge of survival. This work was led by English scientist Peter Scott. Fifteen years were spent on preparatory work, and by 1963 the countries had prepared lists. Of course, the animals of the Bryansk region were also listed.
Red Book of Nature
As it turned out when processing information on the prepared materials, endangered animals around the world turned out to be 523 species! Originally, 2 volumes of a world book were created. In the first, endangered animals were listed, in the second, endangered birds. Similar information was prepared for plants. The book had pages of several colors. On the red sheets of the book were placed animals, whose numbers were at a critical level, they simply could disappear from the face of the earth. The yellow pages provided information about animals, whose populations were influenced by human activities that occupied their habitats. The white pages of the book were set aside for rare animals. And on the gray pages placed little-known.
Red Book of Bryansk region
In 2004, 2 volumes of the Red Book of the Bryansk Region were published. The establishment of books by region allows you to most accurately take into account those species of plants and animals that need special protection, as well as comprehensive measures for their conservation.
In the first volume of the Red Book of the Bryansk region - "Animals" - the description of one hundred and thirteen species of endangered animals. Tom "Plants.Mushrooms "contains information about the endangered five species of mushrooms and one hundred and thirty-three rare plants. These volumes contain descriptions of the species, color photographs, drawings and habitats. The books are official documents.
Red Book of plants
The book consists of four sections, which describe the real state of plants in the Bryansk region. The first section shows plant data that may have disappeared. In the second - those that are for one reason or another endangered. The third includes plants, the number of which, for certain reasons, is reduced. And finally, the plants listed in the fourth section are very rare. The probably disappeared and inscribed into the Red Book include: Russian grouse, male orchid, burnt orchid, lupine clover, fragrant orchard, Siberian weeds, Koch bird and Orchid.
Many medicinal plants are in the Red Book, as they were thoughtlessly exterminated. Currently, they began to grow in separate fields, creating conditions close to natural.But some of them create conditions for their wild growth is impossible, as they grow in hard to reach places. Fifty-eight plants placed in the Red Book are in danger of extinction. And each plant in this category seems to warn: "One more thoughtless step - and the next generation will never see me again."
Red Book of animals of the Bryansk region
The list of animals in the book includes mammals, birds, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and lamprey. This book is also divided into sections. The threat of extinction from the Bryansk forests hung over a trot. There is a sharp reduction in the number of birds snipe. Otter and forest dormouse became rare animals. Among the rare birds are the whooper swan and the long-tailed tawny. The marsh turtle also belongs to rare amphibians.
Rare protected birds: white-eyed dive, white azure, golden eagle, great curlew, great white heron, great spotted eagle, small spotted eagle, green woodpecker, little tern, grub. The average woodpecker as a shrinking population is also listed in the Red Book. In connection with the spread of farming, most of the oak forests were cut down. Naturally, the habitat of the average woodpecker, a species that lived in oak forests, has decreased.He had nowhere to get insects and spiders, inhabitants of oak forests. The largest populations of average woodpecker live now in Desnyansky Polesye, Gavansky oak forests.
Monitoring of flora and fauna
How is the Red Book filled? Numerous biological and zoological studies of flora and fauna located in the Bryansk region are carried out. On the basis of these studies, as well as long-term observations of the objects recommended for inclusion in the Red Book, the real state is analyzed, it is determined which section of the book a particular plant or animal can be attributed to. This is a long observation and hard work of many people.
For example, in impassable Bryansk forests, floodplains of rivers and marshy swamps, there are many different animals under constant observation. Among them - Russian desman, white partridge, European bison. If the population of animals observed in nature is in the risk zone and does not increase, the prepared materials are transferred to the commission, which makes the final verdict: enter the Red Book or continue observation.
The Red Book is a dynamic edition. And so that it reflects information about the real state of the flora and fauna of the Bryansk region, the commission created for these purposes works. Its members are representatives of local authorities, who are entrusted with the functions of environmental protection, scientists, members of the public and employees of the Bryansk Forest Reserve. The commission examines and analyzes the prepared material and gives a final conclusion on the inclusion or exclusion of one or another plant or animal type in the Red Book of the Bryansk region. Approves the conclusion of the regional administration.
If plants and animals could talk, most likely they would encourage people to stop in their conquest of nature.