Sociology of management and social management. Sociology of public administration
Modern entrepreneurs are increasingly moving away from the teachings of classical management schools and are looking for new, more effective management techniques. One of the young trends, trying to find answers and solutions from this angle, is sociology of management.
In contrast to the classical school of scientific management, which focuses on the technological process, sociology proposes to engage in the relationships that have developed in the team.
What does social management do?
Sociology of management considers all processes occurring in society (at all levels) as an object of their interests. The object of the study is the state, the region, and the individual. It can be argued that sociology and psychology of management are interested in all people in the world, as well as organizations and processes occurring during their interaction in any historical era.
In addition, this science is studying the spontaneity of social self-organization, which is very important for enterprise management. Indeed, in addition to the formal team - the staff - informal organizations are constantly being formed at the company: friendly relations are established between people, they have some common interests not related to work, etc. And an informal leader can cause a lot of problems to the management if suddenly decides to oppose himself to the authorities. In a global sense, sociology defines such spontaneous processes:
- human reproductive behavior;
- the formation of the shadow economy;
- population migration;
- the formation of public opinion;
- consumer behavior.
An important aspect of the study of any problem is to determine not only the interests of science, but also the characteristics, processes and properties of the objects of study, that is, its (discipline) subject. Sociology of management analyzes the patterns of functioning of individual social objects and identifies the mechanisms of influence on their components.
At the same time, foreign and domestic theorists seek to identify algorithmson which social patterns are implemented, and on their basis create recommendations for strategic and tactical enterprise management. In addition, the sociology of management calls one of its substantive interests the study of the historical path of management: from the communal social structure to the modern public administration.
At the present stage of development of sociology of management, four blocks of tasks are identified, for the solution of which special knowledge and skills are required:
- the need to manage people in cases where the employee’s personal qualities are beyond his professional skills;
- the need to manage relationships in a team, highlighting issues of leadership and leadership, contrasting formal and informal structures, etc .;
- the need to develop clear criteria for determining management effectiveness;
- the need to manage systems.
Another important issue addressed by sociology of management is the prediction of the development of spontaneous processes and the development of methods for their optimization.
The scale of the studied problems
As well as practically any science, sociology of management is engaged not only in fundamental, but also in applied research. The hierarchical principles of building society dictate to the leaders their own rules and methods of activity. Highlighting the four levels of interaction of society, theorists are looking for solutions to the tasks; moving from the general to the particular and vice versa, it is often possible to develop truly effective recommendations.
At the macrosociological level, processes of interstate, state, inter-ethnic and ethnic character are analyzed. The theory of the average level is occupied by the management of the community living in the local area (region, municipality, organization). The micro level analyzes the activities and behavior of an individual: behavior in society, consumer habits, motivation, etc. And finally, at the operational level, analysis and selection of optimal methodologies for managing the organization is carried out, specific management research programs are being developed.
Each science performs certain functions. Sociology of management is no exception. Researchers identified the following:
- cognitive - determines the essence of management, its role and value in the development of society and subsystems;
- methodological - allows you to formulate principles and approaches not only to the study of management problems, but also to their solution;
- social engineering gives you the opportunity to adjust the activities of social institutions in a given (current) direction;
- cultural studies - forms a management culture and provides optimal conditions for managing influence;
- search and forecasting - is engaged in the search for possible alternatives for the development of management and the study of possible states of subsystems and systems;
- regulatory - develops management technologies that will help to achieve the optimal state of the system;
- ideological - combines modern relationships in society and the interests of each individual (social groups).
So, sociology of management studies the methodology of management, based on socially significant goals; at the same time, the developed mechanisms are based on the results of applied research. Today this direction does not yet own the established conceptual apparatus and has not received itsplaces in the general system of knowledge, since it is on the verge of two sciences - sociology and management itself.
If the definition of sociology is more or less accurate and unambiguous, the concept of “management” is very broad and vague. First, because, depending on the situation, management may relate not to an individual or a group, but to the whole system (organization). In some cases, the discipline considers and management mechanisms. Secondly, the concept of management itself is interpreted in different ways - from the development of a control action to the total control of the activity. Thirdly, management is often perceived as the power of one over the other (the head over the subordinate). And finally, the leadership mechanism is inherent in all areas of human activity without exception.
All this provokes the emergence of such areas as sociology of management and social management. In a general sense, it is considered that management is the development of a guiding influence based on continuous interaction.
Depending on the size of the managed subsystem, the following levels of social management are distinguished:
- Institutional- senior management (president, head of the board of directors, etc.p.), this is also the sociology of public administration.
- Managerial- middle management. It involves the management of groups of people.
- Technical- operational management. He deals with personnel management issues (by individuals), developing individual approaches to subordinates.
The most effective and necessary is considered to be the technical level of management. Of course, both the institutional and management levels are important as strategic goals. But the daily activities of people and the interaction with each other make it possible to engage in the creation of products (that is, to create added value, according to the theory of economics). And that is what leads to income.
This once again confirms the need to study such a science as sociology of management. Topics to consider here are endless:
- building an organizational hierarchy and power system, creating an organizational culture;
- the formation of social groups, the allocation of status in them and the distribution of roles among the participants;
- involvement of subordinates in the development of production common solutions, etc.
All this can significantly increase the responsibility of performers and their performance.
Proper management is the engine of progress.
In addition, the so-called social climate of the collective influences the quantitative and qualitative indicators of production. This means that the sociology of personnel management is also interested in such issues as interpersonal relations of employees, the emergence and resolution of organizational conflicts, adaptation and satisfaction of personnel, social planning and responsibility.
Being engaged in structural relations in a team, this direction can not only track, but also explain how and why innovations constantly appear in management.