Stolypinsky agrarian reform: late modernization
Stolypin agrarian reform: background
The agrarian reform was a set of measures to improve the position of the peasants in the empire and generally raise agriculture from its knees. The reform was carried out by the Russian government under the leadership of its head - P.A. Stolypin. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Russia was a poor peasant country. The lag behind Western states in the economy, industry, social development, and even the efficiency of agriculture was increasingly difficult to hide. The thesis of the middle of the last century, announced by Peter Valuev: "Top shine, bottom rot." In competition with the rapidly developing Europe, it was simply necessary to do something, otherwise the Russian empire in the future could wait for the unenviable fate of Turkey or Iran, once powerful states, and now the semi-colonies of the English crown. The external threat was also added to the external threat.Opposition forces, various liberals, and first of all left-wing people of various kinds, have been gaining increasing popularity in the country among the masses.
Stolypin agrarian reform: the goal
Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin became the head of the government at the height of the revolution, in the troubled year of 1906. It was during this period that the royal throne reeled for the first time, and the need to reform the system clearly appeared. The most important of the subsequent transformations was the Stolypin agrarian reform. Its main goal was an attempt to create a new class of wealthy peasants who were independent in their management. The fact is that the land reform of 1961, which abolished serfdom, did not save the peasants from communal land ownership. The new government, on the other hand, tried to create private competitive peasant farms working on demand, which in turn would stimulate their development. To this end, the state credit bank issued money to independent peasants to purchase land. Moreover, the non-return of this debt was punished by the fact that the land was taken back and again put up for sale.On the one hand, this boosted the work of new private owners, while the loan interest was quite low, on the other hand, it still led to the ruin of a certain part of the peasantry. The second main goal of the reform was the development of land in Siberia: land there was distributed to private hands free of charge, and in the places of new settlements the state contributed to the development of infrastructure. To support peasants moving to Siberia, special “Stolypin wagons” were created. However, the Stolypin agrarian reform was not completed. She was interrupted first by the death of the reformer in 1911, and later by the war.
Stolypin agrarian reform and its results
As a result, about 10% of Russian peasants separated from the communities and began independent management, acquiring about 9 million dessiatines of land. Modern Russian historians generally give a positive assessment of the reforms, noting the qualitative dynamics in the rural sector, the high results of the development of Siberia, and the emergence of a large number of competitive peasant farms.