Technical norms: definition, features, examples
In legal science, the regulations in force are divided into two main categories:social and technical norms. This is the most common classification. In both groups, in turn, there are certain types and types of rules. They are divided into many different features. Technical norms are investigated by lawyers insofar as it is necessary to distinguish them from another group of prescriptions, to establish distinctive features, objective criteria, features. Let's consider further the appointment of technical norms.
Specificity of delimitation
Separation between technical and socialnorms is carried out first of all on the subject of their regulation. The latter regulate the interaction of people, their associations, that is, social processes.Technical norms and rulesregulate the relationship of man and the outside world. They include, for example, the interactions of people and machines, tools, production links, etc. The peculiarity of this relationship is that on the other side there are inanimate objects. Accordingly, they are "semi-public".
Technical norms, of course, can not be identified with the laws of nature. The latter do not depend on the will of people. WhereinTechnics and techology- a product of human activity. Accordingly, standards, patterns of behavior when interacting with inanimate objects are determined by people themselves. Sometechnical regulationsare fixed in legal acts. As a result, they become universally binding. There are variousexamples from life. So, at the state level there are GOSTs, SNiPs, regulations, regulations. They determine the procedure for working with equipment, quality standards. In the SDA there are provisions regulatingsafety of transport operation, in SNiPah requirements for structures, buildings, construction works, etc. In some legal acts, along with the prescriptions, there are sanctions for their violation.
Technics and techologyplay a key role in theproduction process. The country has a huge number of enterprises producing a variety of products. It must meet the quality standards, because the health of the population and the ecological situation depend on it. The technical norms fixed in legal documents acquire qualitative characteristics of legal provisions. They are an expression of the state's will, provided by the possibility of using coercive measures against violators.Technical standardsregulate a specific but extremely importantsphere. Regulating their function is implemented in conjunction with other prescriptions. In this sense, they act as an addition to the legislative requirements.
It also usestechnical regulations. They are not fixed at the official, legal level. Accordingly, their violation can not lead to any liability. Nevertheless, their implementation is also important. If we giveexamples from life, then among such prescriptions can be called instructions on the use of various household appliances (refrigerators, televisions, tape recorders), medicines, etc.
Far-reaching and very serious consequencesarise in the event of a violation of natural balance. Artificial interference in the ecological balance creates a threat to the normal life of people. The Russian legislation provides for different penalties for pollution of nature, damage to natural objects, ecosystems. In the environmental sphere, there aretechnical regulations. They are mainly aimed at preservingnatural environment, ensuring the rational use of resources. Special attention is paid to land and mineral resources, water and air. Any violation of regulations is fraught with catastrophes, an ecological crisis.
Importance of instructions
Modern technologyis designed taking into account the established requirements. The equipment used in production combines high power and environmental friendliness. Special requirements are imposed on processing, extracting enterprises. Inattention, negligence, gross neglect of prescriptions can cause serious, and sometimes irreparable, consequences. An example of that disaster (Chernobyl), destruction, accident. From the observance of prescriptions in the literal sense depends the health and life of people.Modern technologyrequires attentive attitude, clearfollowing the instructions. Often people express dissatisfaction with the numerous standards and regulations. Some even believe that most of these requirements are not needed, because they too rigidly determine the order and nature of many human actions. Especially often you hear discontent from persons performing any official tasks.
Meanwhile, not every prohibition and injunctionis evil. Many instructions are reasonable and extremely necessary today. Their observance is especially important for those workers on whom the life of people can depend. They include, in particular, doctors, pilots, ship captains, etc. We should not forget that many of the prescriptions were the result of working on mistakes - they were formulated after analyzing catastrophes, accidents, emergencies. In this regard, the objection to the instructions is unacceptable. Behind the protests against the prescriptions is often a simple reluctance to be under control, the desire to get rid of legal regulation and get full freedom of action. However, such behavior is likely to lead to sad consequences. Resistance should not be the introduction and application of instructions in general, but the use of obsolete rules that do not correspond to the current situation.
Relationships between humans and animals
Most of the rules governing theseinteraction, are fixed in legal acts. At the same time, the attitude to both domestic and wild animals is regulated. For example, the rules for the maintenance of cats and dogs, cattle, horses, prescriptions on the mandatory vaccination, prevention of diseases, surveys are developed and applied. For violation of these requirements, liability is provided. To which group do you apply these prescriptions? They are not about technical aspects or about social relations, although they have a certain social significance. Experts believe that it is appropriate to refer such requirements to natural-legal ones. They regulate relations with representatives of nature and at the same time are fixed at the federal level in legislative acts.
They are general models, samplesbehavior that has developed in society in the process of long-term practical human activity. As part of their development, people develop certain standards. They determine what can, and what a person can not do, how he or she should perform certain behavioral acts.
Social norms are divided into:
- Traditions and customs. These are rules of behavior that have become mandatory due to habit. Traditions and customs are repeated from generation to generation.
- Moral standards. They assume the evaluation of behavioral acts of a person according to certain (rather simple) criteria: good-bad, good-evil, etc. As a sanction for violation of moral principles, censure and condemnation of society.
- Legal norms. They are fixed in legislative acts. Their enforcement is ensured by coercive measures.
- Aesthetic norms. They assume an estimation of the person on a scale "attractive-ugly". As a rule, aesthetic norms are used in analyzing the natural landscape, works of art, human actions.
- Political principles. They act as regulators of people's activities connected with power. These principles are expressed in international agreements, treaties, charters, conventions, declarations.
- Religious norms. They represent the commandments that are present in the church institutions, the Scriptures.
- Corporate standards. They are established within companies and are fixed in the statute, code, agreements.
To make social prescriptions realinfluenced human behavior, people need to know these standards and strive to implement them. Compliance with the requirements imposed by society is necessary to maintain a balance in the relationship. In this sense, social norms have the same meaning as the traffic rules for drivers. If citizens do not comply with the prescriptions and drive in the opposite lane or get behind the wheel while drunk, the movement will become impossible and extremely dangerous.
Of course, the role of the current regulations is difficultoverestimate. Despite the emerging grievances, contradictions, they perform the most important tasks, regulate the relations between the subjects. The boundaries between social and technical norms are quite clear. However, in practice, prescriptions are often applied in combination. Technical and social requirements ensure not only the stability of social relations, the natural balance, but also the preservation of the life of the population, ecosystems, and property. In all areas where a person creates any spiritual and material benefits, he must follow the prescribed guidelines. This rule applies to workers of various professions. Lawyers are not an exception. They also need to know and comply with both technical and social requirements. From this depends largely on the success of their activities.