Ten achievements of "Pioneer-10"

Today marks 46 years since the launch of Pioneer 10, one of the most iconic interplanetary vehicles in history. On this occasion, the editors I have compiled a list of ten major achievements of the mission.
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1. The First Apparatus Directed to the Outer Part of the Solar System
Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft directed to the outer part of the Solar System. The purpose of the mission was to study Jupiter and interplanetary space. Later, a refining of the gravitational maneuver was added to them, allowing the use of the gravity of the gas giant to accelerate the apparatus.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

2. The first unit, crossed the asteroid belt
Now it may seem extremely far-fetched, but only half a century ago, some experts expressed serious concerns about the possibility of successful navigation through the Main Asteroid Belt. It was believed that the belt could be filled with a large number of small particles that would cause irreparable damage to any spacecraft that risked crossing it.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

Fortunately, these fears were not confirmed. "Pioneer 10" in practice proved the possibility of a safe crossing of the asteroid belt, and its instruments recorded much fewer particles than expected.
3. First riteg in deep space
Pioneer-10 received energy from a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) containing plutonium-238 isotope. Thanks to the reader, the device was able to work successfully in deep space, where it is impossible to use solar panels. At the time of launch, "Pioneer-10" received 165 watts of energy. Due to the decay of plutonium and the gradual degradation of the thermocouple, by 2001, the power generated by the RTG fell below 65 watts.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

4. The first device investigated Jupiter
December 4, 1973 "Pioneer-10" flew at a distance of 132 thousand km from the clouds of Jupiter, making the most detailed at the time photographs of the planet. The device collected data on the composition of the atmosphere of the gas giant, specified its mass, measured the magnetic field strength. He also discovered that the total heat flux from Jupiter is 2.5 times greater than the energy received by the planet from the Sun. In addition, "Pioneer 10" took pictures of the largest satellites of Jupiter and clarified their characteristics.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

five.The first device that passed through the radiation belts of Jupiter
Pioneer 10 was the first to test the full power of Jupiter’s radiation belts. The Earth envoy was subjected to radiation doses 10,000 times higher than the radiation level in the radiation belts of the Earth. Due to radiation, the Pioneer-10 equipment started generating false commands, the connection was interrupted several times. As a result, almost all the pictures of Io and some of the pictures of Jupiter were lost. But, despite all the difficulties, "Pioneer-10" managed to cope with the challenges and maintain performance.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

6. Emmy Award Winner
The photos of Jupiter made by Pioneer-10 were shown live. For this, the mission team was subsequently awarded an Emmy television award.
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7. The first device that developed the third cosmic speed
Thanks to a gravitational maneuver in the vicinity of Jupiter, the Pioneer-10 accelerated to a speed that allowed it to leave the solar system forever. Since then, only four spacecraft have repeated this achievement.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

8. The most distant object made by human hands ... to "Voyagers"
For a quarter of a century after its launch, Pioneer-10 retained the title of the furthest object made by human hands. Only in 1998 it was surpassed by the legendary Voyager-1.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

9.The first device with a message for extraterrestrial civilizations
At the insistence of the well-known science popularizer Carl Sagan, shortly before the launch of the Pioneer-10, an aluminum plate was placed with a message for representatives of extraterrestrial civilizations. It engraved a schematic image of a person against the background of the apparatus, basic information about the Solar System, and a pulsar map, which allows to determine the location of the Sun in the Milky Way.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

10. 30 years of work instead of 21 months
The nominal time of the Pioneer-10 was 21 months. But the apparatus laid a good tradition, repeatedly exceeding all planned dates. Officially, the Pioneer-10 mission ended in 1997. However, for several years after that, NASA maintained contact with the device. The last telemetry from the station was received on April 27, 2002. The last very weak radio signal is January 23, 2003.
Ten achievements of “Pioneer-10” “Pioneer 10”, Jupiter, apparatus, First, launch, Solar, mission, apparatus, asteroids, through, “Pioneer 10”, apparatus, systems, part, Sun, after, radiation, radiation, several, pictures

Now Pioneer 10 is at a distance of 120 AU. from the Sun and annually moves away from it by another 2.5 AU. It is assumed that in 2 million years Pioneer-10 will reach the vicinity of the star Aldebaran.

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