The population of Odessa: the number and composition
This city - the pearl of the sea, South Palmyra - is simply a stunning, fantastic village. It seems that the air itself is filled with creativity and romance. Odessa combines absolutely incompatible. It is a large industrial center, a naval base and the main trading port of Ukraine, a hero-city, a cultural capital and a tourist complex. In Odessa, concentrated a huge number of monuments of history and art. But still the main attraction is the population of Odessa itself. It is about him that many legends were made, jokes were written and books were written. There is no similar ethnic composition in any city. Therefore, we can say that the inhabitants of Odessa are truly unique people. How many people in Odessa and why is it so unique?
The history of the settlement
Specialists, archaeologists, found on the site of numerous mounds certain finds, concluded thatthat the first population of the city (Odessa officially considers it as its birthday on September 2, 1794) was formed in the era of the Bronze and Copper Ages. Moreover, scientists believe that these were not isolated settlements, but a completely densely populated territory. So, those who in the future will be called Odessans lived on this place long before the appearance of the city itself.
The next stage in the history of the demography of South Palmyra is the settlement of land by the Greeks. They came to these territories in the sixth century BC. The main occupations of the Greeks were fishing, tillage. Also among them were many craftsmen who were engaged in various kinds of folk art. At the same time, trade relations began to actively develop.
The population of the city in our era
With the advent of our era, the population of Odessa was a collection of the most diverse tribes. Among them are:
Throughout history, the territory of modern Odessa has passed from hand to hand. In the eighteenth century, it belonged to the Mongol-Tatar horde. After a hundred years, the northwestern lands of the Black Sea region, which included the sea pearl, were under the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.After it dominated Rzeczpospolita. When it was in the area was built port, which was called Kachibei.
However, in the fifteenth century, this transport hub was ruled by the Turks. The then population called the city Hadzhibey. Also, according to one of the versions, after the liquidation of Zaporizhzhya Sich Catherine II, the Cossacks also lived here. But there is one feature that makes a city such as Odessa absolutely unique. The composition of its population even in ancient times was distinguished by its diversity and colorful. Thanks to this confusion, a unique modern ethnos emerged.
The founding of modern Odessa
It was in the eighteenth century that the founding of modern Odessa occurred. During the Russian-Turkish confrontation, the troops of Catherine II seized the enemy’s fortress, located near the settlement. It was the Empress who issued a decree on the construction of a new port in the Khadzhibey Bay. The process was led by Count A. Suvorov. And in the ninety-third year of the eighteenth century, a fortress grew at this place. Two years later, her name was changed to Odessa. The inhabitants of Odessa became due to the fact that near the fortress there was a Greek colony Odessos.
The modern population of Odessa should be grateful for the appearance of the first chapter. It was the French duke de Richelieu. Although he was a foreigner, but he truly served Her Majesty. The goal of the city ruler was the construction of a city that will be many times better than St. Petersburg and even Paris in its beauty and grandeur.
After ten years, Odessa acquires the status of the administrative center of the Novorossiysk Governor-General. At the same time, a stream of merchants poured into the city, and the settlement became the southern gate to enter the international market.
The nineteenth century was marked for the settlement by numerous revolutionary flashes. Almost the entire population of Odessa was involved at the beginning of the century in a secret society “Filiki Eteriya”, and in the middle of the century - in the Bulgarian social and cultural movement.
The twentieth century in the history of the city
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the population of Odessa, as well as other cities, was drawn into a coup d'état. With the advent of Soviet power, the settlement was given the status of a free city. The local council adhered to the decisions of Kharkov.However, in 1918, the Central Rada, located in Kiev, announced the subordination of South Palmyra to itself. Propaganda was conducted by troops under the control of the Central Rada, which were based in Odessa. During the January Uprising, about four hundred Odessa citizens suffered, three hundred of them were injured, and one hundred went to the next world.
In the same year, the republic, led by a pearl by the sea, fought against the Austro-Hungarian and German invaders. They she was taken under control and soon eliminated. However, after the defeat of Germany, the city came under the control of the troops of Grigoriev. Ataman spoke on the side of Soviet power. Since that time, the struggle for the city has flared up between the reds and the whites. Odessa passed from one to the other. But in 1920, the troops of the Communist Party nevertheless gained the upper hand.
Two years later, the settlement was determined to be part of the Ukrainian SSR, and the population of Odessa became Ukrainians. The city gradually grew and after ten years became the administrative center of its region.
Hero City Odessa
During the Great Patriotic War, this particular city restrained the onslaught of the invaders.The Primorsk army tried to cope with this task. Additional reinforcement was created by the Black Sea Fleet. All the inhabitants of the city fought hard. During the siege of the workers of the plant. The January uprising covered the rear, repaired the existing military equipment. Due to this, the troops for a long time could restrain the siege. However, after the fascists entered the Crimea, part of the force was transferred to the peninsula. Odessa has become more difficult to defend. In this regard, it was decided to evacuate residents in Sevastopol. All operation was performed successfully.
The defense of Odessa played a very important role in disrupting Hitler’s plans. For a long time, Romanian troops did not dare to enter the devastated city. It was under the control of them and was given South Palmyra. The Romanian administration immediately gave the order to exterminate the Jews. During one month, more than thirty five thousand people were executed. The population of Odessa has decreased significantly. For the explosion, the administration of Odessa residents also waited for retribution in the form of five thousand residents hanged. But this did not stop the fearless people. They united and created underground resistance.Places of their collection were urban catacombs.
Only in 1944, the administrative center was liberated from the Nazi invaders. And again, Odessans showed courage and strength. Despite the fact that the population of Odessa at that time was quite small, everyone who could help with this, revived the city from the ruins: they rebuilt enterprises, the port, and rebuilt infrastructure. For the work done and incredible resilience, Odessa received the title of hero-city along with Leningrad, Stalingrad and Sevastopol.
Current demographic situation
The population of Odessa in 2016 is 1 010 800 inhabitants, which gives the right to call it a millionaire city. In terms of the number of people, it ranks third in Ukraine, losing only to two capitals - the current Kiev and the former Kharkov.
Social protection of the population in Odessa is based on statistics. And the latter say that the gender division is almost the same. The female half has a slight six percent advantage.
National composition of the city
However, the most significant and interesting in the demographic position of the city is the national composition.And he, as you know, is very diverse and colorful. This is explained by the fact that the administrative center is located on the border of the division of several states. Also one of the reasons for this phenomenon is the presence of the port, which attracted traders from different countries. The events of history also led to a mixture of ethnic groups. These are Albanians, Greeks, Italians and Armenians. A significant proportion of the Russian population. But the more memorable symbol of Odessa is the Jews.
Jewish community in Odessa
Odessa is associated with many Jewish residents. The population census shows that now there are no more than three percent of the total number of Odessa residents.
The history of their occurrence in the city goes far back in time. The first Jews who inhabited Odessa were still in the Turkish fortress, which was called Hadzhibey. This was determined by the inscription on the tombstone, which was most likely left just at that time. According to historians, Jews then came from eastern countries and moved from the Crimea. Even the first Jewish cemetery was formed a year before the official foundation of Odessa.
The influence of Empress Catherine II
During the time of Empress Catherine II, it was decided to quickly settle the lands of the Northern Black Sea region. And the choice fell on the Jewish inhabitants. To implement the plan, the government issued a decree imposing huge taxes on the area of their then settlement. At the same time, privileges were introduced in the newly annexed lands. This played a role, and the Jewish migration flow went to Odessa. However, the first community was organized after the arrival of Rabbi Itzhak Rabinovich in 1809. A community house for poor children and a poorhouse were funded by the community.
Porto Franco Times
What kind of population in Odessa now, was largely determined by the nineteenth century. It was during this period that a large number of Jews moved to the city. Initially, their main activity was trade. They sold everything that you can imagine. But mostly Jews were engaged in textile products, footwear and salt. Although many were poor enough and earned their livelihood only by heavy physical labor.
The Jewish share of Odessa citizens grew at a rapid pace and made up about twenty percent of the total population. Their community still helped schools.No wonder it was also the fact that the most prosperous Jews created entire charitable societies and helped their poor fellows. Therefore, it is rather paradoxical that other people think that the Jewish nature is very greedy.
Among the representatives of this nationality there is a sufficiently large number of talented workers. They worked in almost all possible areas of activity. This includes education, sewing, trade, and jewelry craftsmanship, economics, cargo transportation, and much more.
Modern activities of the Jewish community
Odessa Jewish community is one of the largest in the world. However, over the past hundred years, much has changed. On the path of their normal life stood many difficulties. Representatives of the people exterminated, and the rights of the Jews now and then violated. And only a few were able to carry the traditions of the ethnic group through the years to the present day.
In recent decades, community activities have gradually begun to improve and organize. Now, as throughout history, the Jews are very eager for high-class education.Therefore, attention from the community is given to all educational institutions, ranging from kindergartens and ending with educational complexes and higher educational institutions.
Under the auspices of the community, a women's club is organized, which becomes a gathering place for the Jewish beautiful half. A curriculum was also developed for young people to learn more about Jewish traditions and history. Great attention has been paid to providing the proper opportunity for performing specialized rituals. The community and at the moment continues to engage in charity, helping the elderly and medical institutions of the city of Odessa. Another activity is the printing of the oldest Jewish newspaper, Shomrey Shabos.