Trans-Siberian Railway. Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Perspectives of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Our country can be proud of many achievements in various branches of the national economy. One of those is the Trans-Siberian Railway, which is considered to be the longest railway in the world. Its construction took more than a decade during the existence of the Russian Empire, continued under the USSR and came to an end already in the times of the Russian Federation. The direction of the Trans-Siberian Railway allows you to get from the European part of Russia to the Far East. But first things first.
Idea of building
Siberian lands possessed vast amounts of natural resources. However, their delivery to the European part of the country was difficult.The idea of building the railway was expressed by the governor of Eastern Siberia N.N. Muravyov- Amursky in 1857. However, the government approved the project only by the 80s. This was due to the fact that the idea had a very large number of opponents. They criticized everything - laboriousness, cost, and even suggested that those who support the need for construction, check with psychiatrists. However, the decision was made, and in 1886, Alexander III imposed a resolution on the governor’s letter that it was necessary to begin construction of the railway.
For these purposes, in 1887, three expeditions were organized under the leadership of O. P. Vyazemsky, N. P. Mezheninov, and A. I. Ursati to find the best ways to lay rails. According to the project, the Trans-Siberian Railway (the Great Siberian Route) was to consist of three sections - the South Ussurian, Central Siberian and Trans-Baikal. The expeditions were completed in several years, and in 1891 the Committee on the construction of the Siberian Railway approved the lightened technical conditions of construction and decided to start work. However, the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway was not limited to these three sections.The West-Siberian and Amur sections and the Chinese-Eastern railway were also added to it. Such a composition of the Trans-Siberian Railway made it possible to connect Europe and Asia with a continuous railroad track.
Start of construction. Stage One
So, Alexander III ordered the heir to the throne, Nicholas II, to lay the foundation for building the railway through the Siberian possessions. Despite the high cost and the need for a large amount of labor, it was decided to involve only the funds of the Russian treasury and domestic specialists. In 1891, May 31, a prayer service was held about the event and the first stone was laid by the future heir to the throne, Nicholas II in Vladivostok. In fact, the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway was begun in March on the section between Miass and Chelyabinsk.
A.I. Ursati was appointed head of the construction, but due to conflicts with local city governors, he had to abandon work in the project. O. P. Vyazemsky was appointed instead. He was an engineer, as they say, from God and was able to optimize the construction, reducing the path by 17 kilometers.This significantly reduced the time and cost of laying the rails.
The construction of the Ussuriisk section was completed in November 1897. Its length was 729 kilometers. The railway track stretched from Vladivostok to Khabarovsk.
West Siberian section
In parallel with the Ussuri direction in 1892, construction of the West-Siberian railway from Chelyabinsk to Ob was started. Lead the work was obtained K. Ya. Mikhailovsky. The length of the rails was 1417 kilometers. Their installation took only 4 years due to the use of earth-moving equipment. In 1894, the labor movement began in Omsk, and a year later the road was already partially exploited. In 1897, bridges across the Ob and Irtysh were completed, and the site was expensive to be accepted for permanent use.
The golden mean of Transsib
Two years after the start of construction of the West Siberian Railway, the construction of the tracks of the middle part of the great project, the Central Siberian, was started. Its length was 1,830 kilometers: from the Ob River to Irkutsk. This is quite a difficult segment, since the road was laid mostly on mountainous terrain. The construction proceeded from two places to the east - from the Ob and from the Yenisei.The road was laid on the permafrost, because of what had to make some changes to the project. But, despite all the difficulties, in December 1895 the first train arrived in Krasnoyarsk. All this was made possible thanks to the construction manager, N. P. Mezheninov. The bridges across the rivers were designed by the outstanding bridge builder of the time, L. D. Proskuryakov. The Central Siberian Railway was commissioned in 1899.
New site and new difficulties
The Trans-Baikal Railway cost the Russian Empire в the cost of the entire Trans-Siberian Railway. It was supposed to pass from the southern coast of Baikal to Khabarovsk itself. Construction began in 1895 and progressed very slowly due to flooding and permafrost. The line for 5 years was completed only to Sretensk (1105 kilometers).
Further difficulties began to arise on a larger scale. Political differences in the Far East began to escalate, and the state’s treasury was going through hard times and could not fully finance construction. In 1900, work was suspended. It was also decided to create a ferry railway crossing through Baikal due to the fact that where the Trans-Siberian Railway was laid,natural conditions were too heavy. And this slowed down the progress of all work. It was decided to lay further routes through the territory of China in order to quickly join the Ussuriisky section.
However, due to the poor throughput of the ferry, construction work was resumed in 1903. Laid paths along the southern shore of the lake. The greatest difficulty was the section from the port of Baikal to Kultuk - this is a solid rocky ridge for more than 80 kilometers
Friendship with China. Not all beginnings end well
The proposal of the Minister of Finance S. Yu. Witte was greeted favorably and after the creation of the Russian-Chinese Bank in 1895, in 1896 an agreement was signed with the government of the Celestial Empire on the construction of a Chinese-eastern road through Manchuria. Work on the construction of tracks with a length of 3016 kilometers ended in 1903.
It would seem that the road construction is almost complete, there was only a section on the coast of Baikal, which needs to be finished, because the ferry did not cope with the growing needs of transporting people and goods.And indeed, along the railroad in Manchuria, new cities appeared at the expense of immigrants from other areas of the Chinese Empire. As a result, overpopulation led to the fact that the Chinese began to move to the region of Primorsky Krai. This provided the territory with non-existent labor.
But in 1905 in the war with Japan, Russia was defeated, and most of the railway passing through Manchuria, pledged to transfer to the winner (according to the Portsmouth Treaty). However, such a loss only contributed to the need to build the Amur railway in order to connect the Ussuri and Trans-Baikal sections of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
The last stage of historical construction
The decision to lay tracks on the last section of the track was made in 1908. The road began to stretch from the station Kuenga, which is located between Chita and Sretensky. At this stage, we had to master new ways of laying the embankment under the sleepers, to lay a tunnel in the frozen ground. Completion of a grand project was the bridge across the Amur. It should pay special attention. It was designed by engineer Proskuryakov, like the rest of the bridges of the Trans-Siberian Railway.In 1916 this section was commissioned and the construction of the highway was completed.
Directions of the Siberian way
Despite the fact that the works were completed in 1916, the railway was rebuilt several times, new branches and nodes appeared. So, today there is not one direction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, but four. This is due to the fact that it was necessary to expand the approaches to the railway to increase the volume of cargo transportation. It includes the main course, which the Trans-Siberian Railway has, - nodes of the largest industrial cities of Russia - Moscow, Yaroslavl, Kirov, Perm, Yekaterinburg, Tyumen, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk and Vladivostok. This direction is also called the North. The following transport hubs of the Trans-Siberian Railway - Moscow, Ryazan, Ruzaevka, Samara, Ufa, Miass, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Petropavlovsk - are included in the historic course. The remaining stations correspond to the main course.
The value of the Trans-Siberian Railway
And at the time of construction, and today, the social and economic importance of the Great Siberian Way cannot be overestimated.First of all, thanks to this railway route, it became possible to connect the European part of Russia and access to Europe with the East of the country. The railway passes through 87 cities, crosses 14 regions, 3 territories and two republics that are part of the Russian Federation. Such a path allowed the migration of the population and the redistribution of human resources.
From an economic point of view, the Trans-Siberian Railway (the natural conditions of which are not conducive to the rapid transport by other modes of transport) allowed the movement of resources from the rich Siberia to production and consumption places. Huge volumes of cargoes of various purposes are transported annually.
The railway almost across the entire territory of Russia is important even on an international scale. She gave the opportunity to move goods and people from the East to European countries and in the opposite direction. This undoubtedly improved the international economy.
Development thanks to electrification
On the Trans-Siberian Railway, locomotives were engaged in the transportation of goods and people. Naturally, their capacity was limited, it also limited the amount of cargo. In 1929, the electrification of the railway began, which ended only in 2002.As well as the construction of the highway itself, the work was carried out in sections. This limited the capacity, because in areas without electricity, it was necessary to change the locomotive and reduce the number of cars with cargo. Because of this, transportation was delayed in time, which had a negative effect on economic relations both inside and outside the country. However, thanks to electrification, the development of the Trans-Siberian Railway continued.
In 2014, a plan for the reconstruction and modernization of Russian railways was approved. It is supposed to be carried out until 2018-2020. Such measures are being taken in order to further increase the capacity of the Trans-Siberian Railway for the carriage of goods and passengers.
What will give the investment? At a minimum, they will entail an increase in the capacity of the Transsib, and at a maximum, they will make it possible to upgrade the locomotives, wagons, tracks, upgrade various sections and pay for itself. Such prospects of the Trans-Siberian Railway will help the further development of the regions through which it passes.
Some interesting facts
First of all, the Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway in the world. This path connects two continents - Europe and Asia.A memorial sign was installed on their border (near the town of Pervouralsk). The most severe climatic conditions are noted on the Skovorodino - Mogocha section. The longest railway bridge is located on the Amur River. The largest railway station on the way is located in Novosibirsk. The most intense, speedy and dreary area is between Omsk and Novosibirsk. And at the Slyudyanka-1 station, the only marble station in the world was built as a monument to the labor of the builders of the railway.