Types and basic properties of fabrics
In order for the product to be made flawlessly high quality, you need to find the perfect material for it. The purpose of the object and the figure of the person who has to use it is taken into account, but first of all it is necessary to analyze all the properties of fabrics - texture and other features.
What you need to know?
It is known that hard, dense material does not stretch over time. He is not inclined to crease, but such material makes the figure wider. But the characteristic property of soft tissues is the ability to form smooth shapes. The material easily and freely lays down, but can greatly stretch over time. This is especially true for knitwear. It is believed that such materials are most suitable for rare occasions - to wear for holidays. When used carefully, they are practically not deformed.
If the garment is made of elastic material, it quickly returns to its original state after stretching. Such fabrics are optimal for work on sports wardrobe items, bathing suits.If a person has an ideal figure, he can afford to wear just such a material.
Fabric is not just fiber
What properties of tissues are important for a person? It is customary to recall the physical and chemical, but aesthetic is no less significant. First of all it concerns colors. Fabric drawing is one of the key points that helps to choose the optimal material for the manufacture of the planned object. In particular, a small print, monophonic matter is ideal for most figures, it is quite simple to tailor the product from them. But the fabric, decorated with large pictures, represent a considerable problem for the designer, a seamstress. Cutting requires large stocks of material, since it is necessary to customize the figure. It is not recommended to choose a similar material for the manufacture of wardrobe items for overweight people of short stature.
Certain problems of the working process are associated with such fabrics, the composition and properties of which determine the high hairiness of the surface. It is able to scatter light rays. Watching the material in the direction of the pile, it seems that the color is not sufficiently saturated, but it is worth stroking the matter “against the fur”, as the shade immediately changes.In order to properly cut the product, it is necessary to place all the details in the same direction on the fabric, otherwise the result will disappoint. Another difficulty is related to the flowability of matter. It is quite difficult to work with this, since the edges on the edges are very crumbling. This is especially true for smooth materials - silk, satin.
The heat has come!
Knowing the basic properties of fabrics, you can successfully select the material for clothing designed for a specific season. For example, in the summer, in the spring, it is preferable to wear products made from natural raw materials. The most popular cotton fabrics are made with the addition of viscose fibers, a certain percentage of synthetics. Because of this, the fabric remains breathable and light, but it is much easier to care for it.
If you need to make a shirt, blouse, dress, you can use cotton linen material. It is also suitable for the production of bedding. In some materials weave - Jacquard, linen, but there are also combined options. The study of the properties of fabrics requires paying attention to the geometric characteristics, first of all - the width.Usually there are variants on sale (in centimeters): 80, 90, 140, 160. Due to the inclusion of components of viscose at the production stage, synthetics such matter does not shrink. It is easy to wash, it does not wrinkle.
Fabrics and clothing
Perhaps the most popular fabric - cotton. Its properties fully justify such love of the public: matter is durable, it feels pleasant, it is suitable for different seasons and types of clothing. Often cotton is used for the production of dresses, but more often resort to a special variety of dress fabrics. They differ from each other not only in colors, but also in methods of weaving fibers. In modern stores, the choice of such fabrics is really huge.
The demand for shirt fabrics is quite high. The properties of such canvases (Poplin) are such that their products do not shrink. They are pleasant to the touch, so they are suitable for wearing directly on the skin, without an additional layer of protective fabric. Mercerized cotton is commonly used for the production of shirt fabrics. In addition to the actual shirts, you can safely sew a blouse, underwear from a similar material.
And for training, and for the evening
Knowing the properties of fabrics, it is possible to make a flawless sports suit. Such materials are selected, which include elastane, cotton.It is important that the canvas was durable, withstand significant loads, not abraded. Another significant indicator is hygroscopicity. The most modern products are made from various porous cloths that can drain moisture from the skin. Such materials are certainly the best for sports products, but they are quite expensive, require special care.
It is equally important to successfully select the material for an evening, cocktail dress. Silk is most often used - natural or artificial. The properties of the fibers, the properties of fabrics, natural silk cloths are flawless - this material is breathing, resistant, not stretched and not deformed, looks great. The only problem is that it is very expensive, and it is often difficult to buy - there are many fakes on the market. Mostly commercially available octane, viscose, polyamide, polyester. Synthetic artificial material - does not wrinkle, does not shrink. Polyester is prone to the accumulation of static electricity, so you need to constantly treat the finished product antistatic.
Beautiful and tender
Knowing the properties of fabrics from the category of chiffon, you can be an ideal material for a light summer dress. On sale are natural and synthetic fabrics.Chiffon is translucent. On sale there are single-color options, as well as beautiful and original printed canvas. The fabric is suitable for sewing dresses, blouses.
Considering the types and properties of fabrics, it is necessary to pay attention to velvet. This is a group of fabrics for the manufacture of which are used viscose, cotton fibers. Often additionally, elastane is added to the composition to improve the physical qualities of the material. A distinctive feature of corduroy is the presence of scars, the width of which varies from model to model. Such material is used to make outerwear for people of all ages and gender.
Flax, taffeta and satin
As a rule, flax is a canvas made from natural fibers with a small admixture of synthetics. The properties of modern fabrics in this category are relatively good stretchability, not too strong a tendency to the appearance of folds. But completely natural flax is easily wrinkled, and it will not be easy to iron it, but this fabric practically does not fade and is very pleasant to the body. Linen fabrics are optimal for outerwear for people of any age.They absorb moisture well, are resistant to fading on sunny color and conduct heat.
Determination of the properties of fabrics is important at the stage of selection of material for making clothes. For example, if you plan to make a skirt or blouse, you can give preference to high-quality taffeta. But for the linings for the dress fit the same taffeta, but of poor quality. No less attractive and dense satin - a fabric with a characteristic gloss, smooth, made of natural silk or synthetic fibers. This is more often chosen for the production of cocktail dresses, wedding dresses.
Crepes and delicate matter: the properties of tissues
The properties of fibers for crepes are due to the natural origin of the raw materials, although the condition is not mandatory. Low-priced varieties are predominantly made of artificial silk fibers. It is quite simple to visually identify a crepe - it has a grainy surface, the weaving is quite dense. There is also crepe satin. This is a beautiful fabric, one side of which is matte, and the second - with glitter. Usually, matter is used to make fancy wardrobe items due to its ability to drape.
The mechanical properties of brocade fabric allow you to use this raw material for the production of dresses and suits. The name implies jacquard, in which the threads of golden or silvery material with pronounced brilliance are woven.
It is important!
It is necessary to take into account the mechanical properties of the fabric not only at the stage of manufacturing the product, but also when using it and caring for the object. For example, silk is adversely affected by ultraviolet radiation. Matter weakens, strength drops sharply, the product will not last long. But flax - on the contrary. This material summer sun, like other peripetias of the weather, not terrible.
In order for the favorite signs of the wardrobe to live for as long as possible and not deteriorate visually and in quality, it is necessary to examine what they are made of and observe the rules for using these products.
Physical properties of tissue
Depending on what kind of technology was used in production, the properties of fabrics vary significantly, as does their appearance. Considering the physical features, assess the ability to absorb moisture, conduct air, steam. This includes the capacity of the dust, and the ability to accumulate static electricity. The fibrous composition determines the purpose of the material.At present, in our country there are special rules, standards that regulate the requirements for materials and production technologies.
The property of fabrics, called hygroscopicity, is usually considered first of all within the framework of technological courses; it is one of the basic ones. This term describes how well a material can absorb moisture present in the surrounding environment. The most relevant parameter for the raw materials used for sewing linen and clothing for the hot season. Natural fibers are maximally hygroscopic - flax, silk, viscose.
It is important
Considering the properties of chemical fabrics, be sure to pay attention to poor hygroscopicity. Acetate, synthetics practically do not absorb moisture. The reduction of this parameter is due to special treatment - solutions have been developed that reduce the ability to absorb moisture. Low level of hygroscopicity peculiar to the matter, covered with a film.
Let me breathe!
The ability to pass steam and water are the parameters from which it follows how well the material will absorb the liquid produced by the human body and release it to the environment. The most tangible quality when using natural materials.In addition to cotton and linen fabrics, you should pay attention to silk.
Another important quality is the ability to pass air. The thinner the material, the lower its density, the greater the ability to breathe. The weaves of such matter are openwork, which causes the described specific feature. It is necessary to select fabrics with such parameters if tailoring of the product is planned for use in the hot season. Processing with special compositions, coating, creating a continuous film, greatly reduce the ability of matter to pass air.
Dust and heat
There is a special parameter that quantitatively reflects the ability of a material to accumulate dirt. It is called dust capacity. This feature depends on the composition of the fibers and the density of weaving, used finishes. Much is determined by what the front surface. If the product is made of wool, it is loose and embossed, it will accumulate dust and dirt very quickly. Pile, pile, boucle - all these options get dirty almost instantly.
Fabric can keep not only dirt, but also heat. This parameter is most important for the fabrics used in the manufacture of winter clothing. The already mentioned wool perfectly warms, minimizes heat loss.It will be difficult to keep the warmth of a living body in flax clothing - it quickly gives off energy to the environment. The heat-shielding qualities increase, if in the process of creating the fiber was treated with a pile, roll. Good indicators of heat resistance are products made from a multilayer material.
Electricity: good or bad?
Without light, our life is simply impossible to imagine, but here the static current accumulated by clothes brings many troubles to many. Some fabrics are more, others are less able to accumulate electricity caused by friction of textiles and skin, foreign objects. Synthetic matters are more likely to electrify.
Sew a good piece of clothing from a material prone to a set of static electricity, is frankly not easy, and the finished product will quickly get dirty, as dust particles stick to the surface of the material. Electric discharges are a source of unpleasant sensations, and in some particularly sensitive people they negatively affect the heart, blood vessels and nerves. To reduce the ability of matter to collect electricity, you can treat it with special compounds - quite a lot of antistatics are on sale.Choosing, you need to pay attention to the smell: some are quite persistent, which will create discomfort when wearing clothes treated with the composition.
Properties and features
Considering the characteristic features of materials, pay attention to the thickness, mass, strength and other specific qualities that emit matter against the background of others. Specific values in figures describing the properties are individual characteristics that allow us to conclude that the sample under consideration is of high quality. Properties can be divided into groups:
- geometric (weight, dimensions, thickness);
- mechanical (stiffness, deformation, dissolvability);
- physical (discussed above - the ability to absorb, pass moisture, air, dust);
- tendency to shrink;
- wear resistance.
Division into categories
The threads used in the manufacture of a particular canvas make it possible to classify the material as natural, synthetic or artificial fabrics. Each group has its own unique properties, due to the characteristics of production. So, natural fibers of plant origin or animal. To the first belongs the flax considered above, the second type is wool, silk matter. They are clean, do not harm the environment, safe for humans.
Artificial material is made, in industrial conditions, working with natural materials. The most commonly used cellulose. The finished product is modal, viscose. These are brilliant matters, but mostly fragile, especially when wet.
Synthetic - these are the fibers that are made on the basis of oil, coal, gas. On sale they are represented by capron, acrylic and many other similar names. Products from such raw materials practically do not wear out, they are very durable, but they do not conduct air and do not absorb water, they do not always meet the standards of hygiene with respect to fabrics. Synthetics can cause allergic reactions or an asthma attack.
Textiles are woven on machines, knitted knitted and non-woven fabrics. The latter category are felted. Such matter can be made from very different raw materials, but they are united by similar hygienic, technological, physical, mechanical properties, features, manifested during operation. Analyzing all possible variants of the fabric for sewing the conceived product, it is necessary first of all to investigate the physical and mechanical parameters. In particular, analyze how high the tensile strength.The peculiarity depends on the thickness of the fibers used and the characteristics of weaving, as well as the composition of the product. Synthetics are the most durable, and wool, cotton linen have the worst parameters.
Some fabrics are to a greater extent, others are less able to form folds, creases, which are eliminated by an iron or steamer. Cotton fabrics are most subject to these processes, and polyester options are in the lead.
Beautiful or not?
Some canvases are soft in nature, so they fold easily and aesthetically pleasing. Products made of such material are elegant and beautiful. Especially highly valued are satin, silk. But jacquard, velvet is denser, tougher, so draping them will not work, not enough flexibility.
Stiffness is an important property of the fabric, it must be taken into account when making clothes. The term refers to the ability of a material to resist external factors that change shape. Some canvases, even under the influence of their own weight, may eventually stretch, sag, but others for many decades retain their original appearance.
Safe and lasting
Resistance to wear - one of the most important properties of the fabric. The use of products from different materials is associated with numerous loads - mechanical, chemical. Significant and biological factors. All this leads to the loss of the original aesthetics of the material, provokes deformation, destruction. Fibers become thinner, break up, the fabric stretches and becomes unusable. The highest index of resistance to wear is distinguished by artificial fabric, satin, satin.