Typology and forms of culture. The role of culture in people's lives
The forms of culture and its types are quite complexa structure that affects both regional, and historical, and national, and all other areas of human life. With all this we will try to understand now.
The typology of culture is its classification according to various characteristics. Let us consider which ones.
According to the type of activity and the way of satisfying human needs, culture is divided into:
1. Material culture, which is based on a reproductive, rational kind of activity. It is expressed in objective-objective form and is designed to satisfy the primary needs of man. In the structure of this type distinguish such forms of culture as the culture of labor, habitats, everyday life.
2. Spiritual culture, which is based on a creative, rational kind of activity and is designed to meet the secondary human needs. This type consists of religious, moral, legal, political, pedagogical, intellectual culture.
3. Art culture, it is based on a creative, irrational activity and is designed to meet the secondary human needs. It can be expressed both in subjective and objective-objective forms. The artistic culture consists of pure (architecture, music, dance, cinema, painting) and applied arts (floristics, cosmetology, cooking, hairdressing, etc.).
4. Physical culture, which is designed to meet the primary human needs. This includes sports, recreational, sexual culture.
By culture, the culture is divided into:
1. World, which is a synthesis of national cultures of all peoples inhabiting the planet Earth.
2. National (ethnic), which is characterized by experience and particularities of residence, customs, rules, customs, language adopted in a certain territory.
Separately, mention should be made of such a concept assubculture, which not only differs from the culture that dominates in this or that society, but even confronts, conflicts with accepted values, ideals, norms of behavior, etc.
Basic forms of culture
In accordance with who creates culture and at what level it is, it is customary to distinguish its following forms.
1. Culture is elite (high), which is created by a privileged society. The motto of this form is: "Art for art's sake". This includes some of the artistic, poetic, etc. association.
2. Folk culture (collective), which, unlike the elite, was created by unknown creators who did not have any professional training. Examples of this form: folk songs, dances and tales, myths, folklore, customs, traditions.
3. Mass culture, which has developed with the development of the media. This form is created for the mass and the mass is consumed.
In mass culture, norefined aristocratic tastes or spiritual search of this or that people. This form acquired its greatest scope in the middle of the last century, when the media penetrated many countries. The mechanism for the spread of this culture is directly related to the market.
Mass culture can be national andinternational. As a rule, it has less artistic value than the first two forms of culture. However, unlike them, the mass one is always authored and has a large audience. Samples of mass culture have the property of going out of fashion, losing their relevance, that with the works of elite and popular cultures never happens.
The role of culture in human life
The role of culture in people's lives can be expressed in the following list of its functions:
1. Adaptive function. Culture allows a person to adapt to the social and natural environment.
2. Cognitive function. Culture provides a person with socially significant or true knowledge of the environment, which allows him to adapt as best as possible.
3. Value function. Culture implements the goal-setting of human development, determines the norms of behavior adopted in a particular society.
4. Information and communication function. Culture allows to save and transmit in space and time socially significant information that is the guarantor of mutual understanding and unity of a particular society.
5. Regulatory (normative) function. Culture defines and regulates various types and aspects of personal and social activities of people (in everyday life, at work, in interpersonal relations).
6. Semiotic (sign) function. Culture - a system of certain signs, without studying which, it is impossible to master cultural achievements.