Ventilation channel in a private house. Exhaust ventilation in the house
Providing a private home is one of the primary conditions for its comfortable and safe operation. The presence of the hood allows you to form in the premises of thermal comfort and the microclimate in general, which is important from the point of view of health and safety of residents. There are different ways of arranging the ventilation system, but in most cases it is a ventilation duct, for which it is important to calculate the dimensions, location, air volumes and other characteristics.
Natural ventilation channels
These are the simplest systems that provide natural air exchange in accordance with the difference in temperature indicators in the house and on the street. It is this difference that forms the traction, the force of which causes the air from the room to go out along the vent lines. For the implementation of such a system using vertical channels, lined with hollow blocks or bricks.Despite the external lightness of the device of such structures, natural extraction requires the presence of inlet openings, which are indicated in the project. The standard dimensions of the ventilation ducts of this type are 140x140 mm. The part of the shaft, which is located on the roof, must be insulated so that the cooled air does not condense water vapor, otherwise water will enter the room.
In this case, used mechanical exhaust. Installation involves the installation of fans in places where ventilation channels are provided. As a rule, such mines serve systems with a heat recuperator. In general, the complex should include channels with grills and anemostats.
For the implementation of the mines are usually used tin air ducts, which are stiff, but there are also plastic ventilation ducts that are different in practicality and resistance to corrosion processes. The second option is more expedient to use if it is planned to equip the premises of a complex configuration. Anyway, you should not save on materials for mines and fans, since deformations in structural elements can cause serious problems during repairs.This is especially true of synthetic materials, the surfaces of which are not easy to maintain, in contrast to smooth metal mines.
Large section - plus or minus?
Ventilation ducts with a large cross section are usually selected. The massive design allows you to serve a large amount of air, which affects the performance for the better. But a large channel has disadvantages. This is primarily due to installation problems. Among the basic requirements of many customers of such systems it can be noted that the ventilation duct in the house should be as hidden from the eyes as possible. Fulfill this condition will only help carefully thoughtful wiring layout. Otherwise, decorative works with beams or columns for mines may be required. The best option for placing large air ducts is a basement or attic. In residential areas it is recommended to leave only branches with minimal sections.
Channels with round section
Such ducts are installed faster, are durable and do not imply depressurization after a certain period of operation.Compared to rectangular channels, such shafts imply less resistance to the movement of air, which has a beneficial effect on durability. Therefore, round ventilation ducts in a private house, it is desirable to mount as a priority, if possible.
Installation is made of spirally twisted metal strips, which experts call "spiro." Areas of indirect connections with different diameters are mounted using elbows, tees, adapters and other fitting accessories. Installation usually does not cause any difficulties - one component is easily inserted into another. Then the formed joint is sealed with an adhesive film and exhaust ventilation is obtained with reliable sealing. The diameter of the round air duct of the “spiro” type can vary from 10 to 25 cm, which allows equipping such channels with almost any type of private houses.
Immediately it is worth noting one advantage of such channels, for which they forgive all the shortcomings. In installation, they are more compact and require little space compared to round counterparts. However, the procedure itself, by which rectangular ventilation ducts are installed, is more complex and labor intensive. In addition, the output is obtained by the design of medium tightness.The connection of air ducts with this form of section is produced by flanges, which, in fact, complicates the installation process. Even when purchasing such an air duct, at least 40 mm should be added to its external dimensions to ensure installation and connection.
But there are exceptions due to which this format wins over round ducts in terms of residual free space. These are plastic ventilation shafts, which are joined by inserting one fragment into another. Such air ducts are produced in a flat form with a height of 55 mm. But even in this case, the ventilation efficiency will be average, since the plastic ventilation ducts with a rectangular cross section noticeably lose in aerodynamics to round ducts. Accordingly, they can be used only in extreme cases when other options are not suitable.
Flexible air ducts
Elastic materials in the channels of ventilation systems are not recommended, but again there are cases when they cannot be dispensed with. The connection of exhaust and intake grilles with rigid mines requires the use of flexible fragments.This function is performed by the so-called "flexs". It is impossible to attribute them to full-fledged air ducts - rather, they are transitional parts, the use of which is justified from a constructive point of view. Due to the possibility of making bends, the ventilation duct is easier to install and branch into it. In addition, the “flexs” reduce vibrations in rigid ducts, which makes the exhaust shafts quieter.
Where to locate I / O locations?
In accordance with hygienic standards, exhaust grilles in small single-family houses should be installed directly in the premises from which air must be removed. For example, in the bathroom, in the kitchen, wardrobe or laundry. This solution will reduce the number of extracts and the length of the mines. But for effective functioning such a ventilation duct should be able to transmit air through separate rooms. Accordingly, doorways must be provided with the possibility of airing. To do this, either holes are created in the wall, or a gap of 2-3 cm should be left between the floor and the lower edge of the door.In addition, in a private house it is necessary to exclude the possibility of air dilution and excessively high pressure. To fulfill this condition, the amount of exhaust air must correspond to the volume of injected air.
Valves for ventilation duct
Vent valves can perform different functions as part of a single exhaust system at home. Knowledge of the features of these elements will allow you to determine which of them the ventilation duct will work more efficiently in a particular case. So, the air valve in terms of destination is classified into the following types:
- Reverse - under unstable atmospheric conditions, this type of valve prevents a change in the direction of air flow.
- Valve in the mixing chamber - used to regulate the balance of waste and clean air.
- Supply - used to regulate the volume of air served by ventilation.
- The valve of the smoke removal system is a mandatory element in the smoke exhaust.
- The fire damper is a special type that prevents the flame from spreading to neighboring rooms through a ventilation system.
Whatever the requirements for the ventilation system in the house, you should take a responsible approach to its design and implementation. Despite the external harmlessness, exhaust ventilation is responsible for an important characteristic of the dwelling - the presence of fresh air. In addition, dirty air is drawn through the exhaust channels, which are not recommended to breathe according to sanitary and hygienic standards. A clear definition of the needs of each room in the house in terms of ventilation and compliance with installation requirements will allow you to perform a productive and durable ventilation system.