What do the surnames mean?
Name and surname accompany any person from birth. However, not all people know what their family names mean and where they come from.
Family name - generic name, which appeared inof antiquity. The word "surname" comes from the Latin word meaning "family". Judging by the annalistic sources, it can be concluded that the inhabitants of free Novgorod lands had nicknames-surnames already in the XII-XIII centuries. Initially, the names were mostly from the nobility, and then appeared in the rest of the people.
The meaning of the surnames is closely related to the sources of their origin. Knowing how this or that surname appeared, you can find out what it means.
Origin of Surnames: Sources
- Place of residence, geographical names (for example, Vyazemsky, Rostovsky, Belozersky, etc.);
- The names of ancestors, that is, patronymics (Ivanov's son - Ivanov's family name, the generic names were formed similarly: Sidorovs, Petrovs, Antonovs, Stepanovs, etc.);
- The names of birds and animals (Utkin, Volkov, Zaitsev, Sokolov, Grachev, Belkin, etc.);
- Professional activities (Kuznetsovs, Tkachevs, Fishermen, etc.);
- Nicknames (for example, the name Dolgoruky comes from the nickname "Long Hands", or Vereshchagin's surname comes from the verb "to bark");
- Names-amulets. In the old days it was meant that they served as a powerful defense against evil spirits, and did not scold their owners, as it may seem. Examples of such names: Fools, Scoundrels, Nekrasovs and others.
- Non-Russian roots of names can be found in such family names as Karamzins (source - Kara Murza), Akhmatovs (source - Akhmat), Lermontovs and others.
- Life - items of clothing and shoes reflect the surnames: Laptev, Rubashkin, etc .; food products: Sbitnev, Sakharov and others.