What is a motor neuron?
The motor neuron is a cell,which, in turn, is responsible for muscle activity. As a result of the destruction of such cells, muscle is attenuated and depleted. Disease of the motor neuron is an incurable disease that eventually leads to the death of the patient.
Symptoms of the disease
A patient whose motor neuron isat the first stages of regression, does not feel any obvious symptoms. However, there are some initial signs of the onset of the disease: the patient has weakness in the muscles, it becomes difficult for him to move around and keep his balance. Often there are problems with swallowing. It is hard to hold any object, not even very heavy. Over time, the symptoms become more pronounced. In some cases, the motor neuron can be affected on one side, but later the pathology extends to both extremities. In some patients, the disease manifests as convulsions. This symptom indicates that the lower motor neuron is damaged. In a large number of patients with this diagnosis, exhaustion and muscle weakness occurs only on the hands and feet, but in practice, there are cases of depletion of the muscles of the face and throat, which leads to difficulty swallowing. Most patients, even in the last stages of the disease, retain the ability to think clearly. This disease is not infectious or viral, they can not get infected from others, but it is men from the age of 40 to 70 who are more prone to motor neuron disease. The life expectancy of people with this diagnosis can often coincide with the life expectancy of a healthy person. Scientists have conducted a study and found that there are only 6 people suffering from this disease per 100,000 people.
Causes of the disease
The causes of this disease are stillthere are disputes among medical specialists. As a result, there is no clear answer to the question, and it is unclear what causes this ailment. Several assumptions are made about the causes of the onset of the disease. One of them is the impact of viruses, toxins and harmful substances in the environment. The second alleged cause is heredity, namely the presence of a mutating gene in members of the same family.
Disease of the motor neuron can occur indifferent forms, and also manifested in different ways. The only thing that remains unchanged in the history of the disease is that all forms and types of its course are expressed in degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord and brain. The main neuron diseases are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, primary lateral sclerosis, progressive muscle atrophy, pseudobulbar paralysis, and spinal muscle atrophy. One of the causes of this ailment in children may be a viral disease - poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
This is a form of motor neuron disease. It is represented by weakness and atrophy of muscles, often observed in the hands, but there are also possible manifestations in the feet. The initial symptoms may be different, but later they become asymmetric. With the progression of the disease, there are visible symptoms, namely the motor neurons of the spinal cord are weakened, the most causing the relaxation of the muscles of the body. In the progressive form of the disease, only certain functions remain unchanged. This is controlled urination, arbitrary movements of the eyeballs and sensitivity. Statistics show that only 50% of people with this form of the disease can live for about 30 years, the remaining half dies between 3 and 10 years, depending on the degree of increase in the disease.
Primary lateral sclerosis
Another form of motor neuron disease. This form of the disease is accompanied by violations of chewing and swallowing food, as well as distorted pronunciation. Possible psychotic disorders, such as involuntary and uncontrolled laughter or, on the contrary, crying. Most patients with this form do not live for three years.
Progressive spinal atrophy
This type of motor diseaseneurons are found only in adults, with it a sensitive intercalary motor neuron remains intact. This is the most loyal form of the disease. It occurs only in people over 25 years of age and in about 10% of cases is inherited.
Progressive Bulbar Palsy
This disease is much less common thanprevious. It is accompanied by the defeat of only the upper neurons. The disease manifests itself gradually and begins with a weakening of the muscles, as well as muscle spasms. This disease can last for many years, gradually leading the patient to a complete disability.