What is China? PRC Policy
The official names of some states sometimes differ from those that are usually used in everyday life. This is mainly due to the presence of abbreviations. One of these countries - China. This is the state we call China. What is the decoding of the PRC? This abbreviation hides the following name: People's Republic of China.
Where did the modern name come from?
Today, China (PRC) is a socialist state. By what principle is its name built? There are two elements in it. The word "republic" indicates the form of government, and the word "national" indicates the presence of the socialist system. After all, it is assumed that in such a country the power belongs to all its citizens.
Other countries that once embarked on the path of building socialism adhered to the same principle. This, for example, Poland - the Polish People's Republic, Bulgaria - People's Republic of Bulgaria and others. And only after the states abandoned the socialist system, they removed the word “people” from their names. And today it is the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Bulgaria, etc.
The decoding of the PRC is still the same. After all, China continues to follow the path of building socialism and is not going to abandon this system. That is why this state continues to be called the People's Republic.
origin of name
So, what is the PRC is already clear. The origin of the abbreviation is clear enough. But now the following question arises: “Why is the republic called the Chinese?”
The people themselves call him Zhong Guo. Translated, it means "middle country." China is also a European name that was learned in Russian. This word appeared with the light hand of the traveler Marco Polo in the Middle Ages. But initially it sounded a little different - Katay. Its origins can be found in the name of the Khitan tribe.
However, there is a paradox. He concluded that the tribe from which the name of the now mighty country originated was not Chinese. These were the Mongols who came from Manchuria and seized the northern territories of the state. The somewhat modified name of the tribe was gradually consolidated for the area conquered by the Mongols, and then for the whole country.
Sometimes mysterious and distant China is also called the Celestial. Why? The origin of this name could not be accurately explained by anyone. According to some historians, the ancient Chinese were convinced that their country was the only one in the world under the auspices of the sky. They considered the rulers of their state "sons of heaven". But there is another opinion. According to him, the current PRC is a country in whose territory the highest system of the planet is located - the Himalayas. Perhaps she gave China such a poetic name.
Little about the mysterious state
What is China? Zhong Guo, as the Chinese call it, is one of the most mysterious and amazing countries in the world. It is home to paper and compass, silk and gunpowder, porcelain, as well as many other discoveries and inventions that are very useful to mankind. China is a state that never ceases to attract the attention of travelers, researchers and historians.
What is China? This is a state located in the southeastern part of the Asian continent. By its outlines, China resembles a huge bird soaring in the sky.
The country is the heir of a great civilization, whose history goes back almost five thousand years. What is China? It is a unitary state with a rigid management system and a well-constructed vertical of power, which since 1949 has been subordinate to the Communist Party.
China is located on a huge area. This is an area of 9,596,960 square kilometers, which includes the island of Taiwan with the surrounding small islands, which is not controlled by the central government. By the occupied area, China is in third place on the planet, second only to its neighbor Russia, as well as Canada. But in terms of population, the country is on the first line of the world ranking. As of 2015, 1,368,660,000 people lived in China.
A bit of history
Researchers believe that China was already settled 7 million years ago. The very first ruling dynasty of the country were representatives of the Xia clan. They were in power in 2700 BC. er Subsequently, the country was ruled by different dynasties, which successively replaced each other.
Approximately 400-200 years. BC er in China, the slave system has ceased to exist. After it began the heyday of feudal relations.This is the period when iron tools began to be used in mass quantities and bronze smelting was mastered. At the same time, Chinese masters began to produce ceramics glazed products known to the world and developed silk production.
From 221 BC. er The country began to rule the Qin dynasty. His representative - Qin Shi Huang - the scattered principalities were united into one whole state. The ruler himself was considered the first emperor. Qin Shi Huang created a whole system of counties and prefectures and gathered 30 thousand people for the construction of the Great Wall of China, which was built for dozens of years and stretched for 8 thousand km.
After that, for 406 years, the Han dynasty stood at the head of China. It was a period when agriculture was particularly developed, various crafts and trade developed. The Empire has expanded its territorial possessions. The Great Silk Road reached its peak, along which trade caravans went to the Mediterranean coast, to Central Asia and to the countries of Western Europe.
Later on, the Three Kingdoms reigned in China. During this period, there were three states of equal power in the state.Next came the time of the Tang Dynasty, which is known for the further flourishing of agriculture, the craftsmanship of textiles, porcelain and ceramics. In addition to these crafts, shipbuilding began to develop and cultural and trade ties with Persia, Korea, India and Japan were gaining momentum.
After the overthrow of the Tang dynasty in China began a series of military conflicts. In the historical annals of this period is known as the Epoch of the ten kingdoms and five dynasties. However, despite internal disagreements, the Celestial Empire was considered the first country to develop science, technology and typography.
At the beginning of the 13th century, the Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan. And at the end of the same century, his grandson captured additional territories, which made it possible to create a single state, which also included Yunnan, Xinjiang and Tibet. He also ordered to transfer the capital of the country to modern Beijing.
The next dynasty, Ming, led the Celestial Empire to a long bloom. It was a period of equipment of a large number of expeditions, which allowed to make the largest discoveries before the Columbus era.
Since 1840, China began to wage the so-called opium wars with Great Britain.The ruling emperor Daoguang at the time in all ways resisted the smuggling of drugs, which brought huge profits to the British. That is why Britain and unleashed a war against China. However, the fighting did not bring the desired success to the conquerors. China had to sign humiliating agreements that dealt with relations not only with Great Britain, but also with the United States, Russia, Japan and France. This defeat of the state in conflicts with influential countries, as well as the constantly growing discontent of the people was the reason that during the period from 1919 to 1949 in the Middle Kingdom periodically popular revolutions erupted. The result was the overthrow of the power of the emperor.
10/1/1949 was proclaimed the PRC - People's Republic of China. Then land reform took place. The constitution of the People's Republic of China was adopted. A significant impetus to the development was received by industry and energy. The rate of production of cars and aircraft has increased. The machine-building industry has reached its prime.
Despite the fact that China is already considered a mighty power, the development of the PRC continues at the present time.The country is one of the leading space states on our planet. It possesses nuclear weapons and has the largest army in terms of the number of troops. At the same time, the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
According to the correct policy of the PRC government, the development of the country has now reached unprecedented proportions. Since the end of the 1970s, China’s centralized economy has been shifted to market-oriented rails. That is what allowed her to take a leading position in the world. So, by 2010 China was considered the largest exporter among all the states of our planet.
The economy of China has reached its peak thanks to the reforms undertaken by the government of the country. They began with the collapse of collective farms, and then continued to expand. This has resulted in price liberalization and fiscal decentralization. At the same time, the autonomy of state enterprises has increased, the private sector has grown, and modern stock markets have been developed. The economy has become open to foreign trade, as well as to investment.It is worth noting that every year the PRC implements the reforms developed by leading experts, introducing them gradually.
Recently, China has updated the support of state-owned enterprises operating in areas considered priority for the country's economic security. The goal of this PRC policy is to create a global competitive society.
The ongoing restructuring of the Chinese economy has contributed to the fact that since 1978 the country has experienced a tenfold increase in GDP. Given the purchasing power parity, as early as 2013, China was placed second in the world in terms of economic development after the United States.
People's Republic of China
China is a huge, very different and unusual country. Moreover, such a characteristic of the Middle Kingdom can be given not only by foreigners who came here as tourists, but also by local residents. After all, the northern and southern territories of the PRC have enormous differences. What is it expressed in? The north is considered more Europeanized. In the south, the population continues to preserve national traditions. That is why it is simply impossible to know all of China. After all, this amazing country can rightly be called a countrycontrasts.
Fifty-six nationalities live today in the PRC, which adhere to different religions. 92% of them are those Chinese who are most familiar to us, or Han. The remaining 8% include small nations. Among them are Zhuang and Hui, Miao and Uigurs, Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus, etc.
The vast majority of Chinese are atheists. It happened in the Celestial Empire with the advent of the socialist system. Only a small population of the country professes Islam, Buddhism, Christianity and other religions.
The political structure of China
In China, there is one-party system. Indeed, despite the fact that about eight parties have been created and are operating in the country, only one of them plays the leading and leading role. This is the Chinese Communist Party, or the CCP. The same is written in the constitution of the PRC.
According to the provisions of this important document, the All-China Assembly, which is attended by representatives of the people, is the highest state authority. There are also deputies elected from autonomous cities, districts and provinces. Members of the assembly are representatives of the armed forces elected for a five-year term.
The head of the People's Republic of China is the chairman, who is sometimes called the president of the country.He and his deputy are elected by the All-China Assembly for a five-year period. In this case, the chairman of the PRC can become no more than two consecutive terms. This senior official has, in turn, the right to appoint a suitable candidate for the position of Premier of the State Council of the country, as well as to elect members of this body who are members of the Chinese government. A citizen who has reached the age of 45 can become the chairman of the People's Republic of China. In his post, he signs decrees and laws before their entry into force.
There is a Central Military Council in the PRC. He controls the army of the country. Local power is the prerogative of local assemblies of people's representatives, and judicial authority belongs to people's procurator's offices and people's courts.
The leading role in the nomination and appointment of candidates for any position in government bodies is played by the Communist Party. In this regard, in the state of particular importance are party meetings, as well as secretaries and members of the political bureau at all levels.
Administrative division of the PRC
The Constitution of China approved a three-tier division of the territory. According to this document, the country is divided into provinces, which, in turn, consist of counties that are divided into volosts. But actually there are five such levels.After all, between the provinces and counties are districts. Volosts also divide into villages.
There are also autonomous regions, as well as volosts, counties and districts, which are created for the management of national minorities. There are other special units in China. For example, a city in China, according to the administrative division, may be a district, county or have central subordination, equivalent to a province.
At the last stage of the civil war (1946-1949), the Chinese Communist Party defeated the Kuomintang nationalist party. After that, the Kuomintang government had to be evacuated to Taiwan. To protect it, the United States even deployed here the seventh fleet of the Navy. And although a temporary truce came after the civil war, disputes between the Republic of China, located in Taiwan, and the DPRK continue to this day. The island nation claims power over the whole of Celestial. The PRC considers Taiwan part of its territory.
In the Republic of China there is a democratic system of government. The head of state is a president who is elected by the people.Since the 70s of the last century, the processes of liberalization of the economic and political system have been going on in Taiwan, which, together with the assistance provided by the Americans, has led the country to an increase in GDP and its per capita indicator.
Special Administrative Regions
On the territory of China are the cities of Macau and Hong Kong, which since the mid 19th century. were ruled by Portugal and the UK. After its formation in 1949, the newly created government began to defend the right of the PRC to these lands. However, the task was complicated by the fact that these former colonies already had their own market economy and democratic political systems.
In this regard, in the 80s of the last century, Deng Xiaoping proposed the “one country, two systems” policy. It envisaged the accession of Hong Kong and Macao to China, but at the same time maintaining their democracy and market. The government of the PRC held a series of negotiations with Britain and Portugal. Their result was the return in 1997 of Hong Kong, and in 1999 - Macau.
According to the constitution of the People's Republic of China, these special areas are equated with provinces. However, they have broad autonomy. Hong Kong and Macao are allowed to have their own constitution, judicial, legislative and executive powers, currencies, as well as independent immigration,tax and customs policy.
Directions of development of the country and relations with other countries
The government of the PRC is pursuing a single course of reform. And all of them are developing in the social, economic and political spheres at a stable pace, and no changes will be expected in the near future.
China seeks to develop strong relationships with Russia. This will help maintain a peaceful environment conducive to the creative processes within each of these states. For this, China initiated the signing of agreements that allowed to settle its territorial disputes with the Russian Federation.
In its foreign policy, China seeks to develop trade relations. The country's government is negotiating the creation of a free trade area between China, South Korea and Japan. It is also planned to develop cooperation with Russia and many other countries of the world.