What is teaching? Philosophical and political teachings
Philosophical, political, pedagogical teachings- this term can be found in many contexts. But regardless of which adjective will stand side by side, the main question is different: "What is teaching?" It was the answer to it that became the topic of this article.
The concept of "teaching" has several definitions. If we consider the term not as a process of acquiring knowledge in any particular area (and such a definition is also available, but in this case does not fit), then the following explanations remain for what is teaching.
- Teaching as a set of theories in one area of knowledge.
- Teaching as a set of ideas of one and the same thinker in the field of science chosen by him.
- Teaching as a complex of dogmas of a certain religion (dogma).
Of particular interest are the first two. With them, philosophical and political doctrines are most often associated. Let's consider in more detail
Philosophical teachings originate from the verythe origins of the development of the corresponding science - in ancient Greece and Rome. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and the Ancient Roman - Cicero, etc., expressing their thoughts and forming views, acquired followers who brought them to our days. Thus, the teachings of these great minds were formed.
Examples of philosophical teachings
In the course of an ever-increasing development of philosophy and searchthe answer to its main question (what is primary: spirit or matter?) stood out the basic philosophical teachings, which absorbed not only the ideas of one author, but the conclusions reached by the generations of thinkers. Materialism and idealism, as the two extremes of the answer to the main question, monism, agnosticism, solipsism and unusual Russian cosmism - each of them is characterized by its own peculiarities and they are associated with a whole list of philosophers.
But the teachings of antiquity, although they sometimes havespecific conceptual terms (for example, dialectics), still come from the names of the authors - Socrates, Heraclitus and others. However, this happened already in the Middle Ages, and in the heyday of German philosophical thought. The classical teachings of Locke and Hobbes, Nietzscheanism, by the name of the great Friedrich Nietzsche. It should be noted that such exercises are more narrowly focused, although some of them developed after their founder (for example, Neoplatonism).
In politics: antiquity
Philosophy and politics in antiquity wereclosely interrelated. Many of the philosophers of that time developed their ideal model of the state. The history of the teachings remembers the dialogue of Plato under the same name ("State"), in which he singled out imperfect forms of it, offering his terminology. It is not unknown that the notions of "democracy", "timocracy" and other "..cripts" originated precisely from ancient Greece. In contrast to the abstract philosophical approach of Pythagoras and Heraclitus, Plato was more strict and precise. Aristotle was also the bead, dividing the forms of government into those that he considered "correct" and "wrong." However, in this rationalism there were many limitations.
In Politics: The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
The Middle Ages were designated purely theocraticapproach, including to politics, and to the ideas of creating statehood. Such a thought permeated all the political teachings of the time. Especially significant was the teaching of Thomas Aquinas, who, borrowing ideas from Aristotle, tried to change them into a Christian manner and conceived of this great popularity.
In the Renaissance it is worth noting Niccolo Machiavelli andhis appeal in writing to the then (albeit unofficial) ruler of Florence, Lorenzo the Magnificent. His treatise "The Emperor" contains quite unambiguous thoughts about political power. The doctrine of Machiavelli puts politics above morality. It is interesting that the "Sovereign" has survived to modern times and is even transferred to an electronic version, which means that anyone can read it to learn what Machiavelli's doctrine is.
Apparently, the definitions of the teaching as a set of ideasone author or one field of knowledge echo each other, they are closely interrelated and therefore correlate. At the same time, because of this, it is not difficult to determine what a teaching is.
Philosophy and politics, although now dispersed intwo different sides, still stood at the same source, because political doctrines often came from those thinkers who expressed their views not only in this field of knowledge.