What the Crane Eats in Nature: Features and Interesting Facts
Cranes are birds, about which songs are composed,poems and children's tales. These are long-legged handsome men with a narrow long beak, gathering in flocks and issuing flickering sounds in flight, which everyone sees off in the sky every spring and autumn. What the crane eats when in Russia or when wintering in southern countries is described in this article.
Cranes and their types
Family of birds Crested - one of the mostancient on Earth. They appeared in the era of dinosaurs (about 50-60 million years ago) on the American continent, from where they settled first to Asia, then Africa and other continents.
The Crane family includes 15 species, fromwhich 7 live and nest in Russia, many of them are listed in the Red Book. Some species are migratory and migrate with the onset of the cold season, others lead a sedentary lifestyle. How to look, where live and what cranes feed in nature - these questions will interest all lovers of such diverse and beautiful birds.
These are beautiful large birds (up to 125 cm in height),living all the warm season in Russia, Europe and North Asia. The habitats of such cranes are very diverse and do not depend on the landscape, but they nest only in marshland. In Russia, these are wetlands in river floodplains, in the forest-steppe and steppe zones - lake basins and meadows covered with water and thickets of reeds.
In western Europe, cranes usually live insmall swamps near the sown fields and not far from people. These birds are omnivorous, and therefore, what the gray cranes eat depends on the season. In summer and spring they eat small animals, mollusks, berries, sprouts of marsh plants, various insects and their larvae. In the autumn, cranes, flying over the fields, are fed by sowing crops (wheat, barley, peas and maize), picking up the remaining small potatoes. The most favorite autumn dish is fresh seedlings of winter wheat.
White Crane (Siberian Crane)
Sterkh is a very rare species of the Crane family,listed in the Red Book of Russia. He lives and nests in the tundra in Yakutia and the Tyumen region, and flies to northern Asia for the winter (China, India). It is a long snow-white bird with a red beak, its growth is up to 140 cm, the wingspan reaches 2.3 m.
What a white crane feeds on depends on its place of residence: in the tundra on lakes and swamps, it eats small animals (lemmings, mouse-voles), fish and insects, aquatic plants and berries.
Sometimes white cranes rob: steal and eat fresh eggs and even chicks of other birds. During the winter in the Asian countries, they feed on tubers and rhizomes of aquatic plants.
Dancing Japanese Crane
The most beautiful bird of the genus Cranes of JapanCrane, which for many years has been listed as an endangered species in the International Red Book. Disasters for this bird are associated with its habitat - marshes and swampy meadows on the Japanese islands, which are permanently drained by people for the construction of roads and populated areas. Occasionally these birds are found in Russia and China.
Frogs, fish, small invertebrates, various insects - that's what the crane feeds on the swamp. This bird is very rare and timid, and therefore it is very difficult to see it.
The appearance of the Siberian Crane is very beautiful: its snow-white feathers pass to the ends of the wings and tail in black, the beak is dark, and on the vertex - a red cap. For its exquisite beauty, the Japanese consider this bird to be an important symbol in their culture, embodying prosperity and long years of life.
The most remarkable and beautiful in this bird -her magic dances at dawn, when cranes make smooth dance moves. Having dismissed the huge wings, the bird then freezes, then jumps, listening to its inner music.
Krasavka is the smallest crane in the world, it numbers up to 200 thousand individuals in various states (countries of Central and East Asia, Mongolia, Russia).
Low growth (up to 90 cm), trunkLight gray, and the head and neck are black. Behind the eyes are beams of snow-white feathers, the beak is yellow, small. The cornea of the eye is an unusual bright orange color.
Unlike other species, the belladonna live onopen spaces with low grass: steppes, semi-deserts, savannahs. They actively settle and propagate directly on arable land near water (streams, rivers, small lakes, grasslands).
In addition to feeding from grain fields (ears eats whole), lizards and insects, eggs of other nesting birds - that's what the crane-belladonna feed in the steppe, as well as various seeds and parts of plants.
Nesting crane-belladonna in the steppe right on the ground in a pit, surrounded by branches and droppings. Babies live with their parents for up to 10 months.
American shepherd's crane
There are several species of cranes, nesting andliving on the American continent. The most original of them is Aram. It is a bird of the family of the cowherd cranes of a small size (about 66 cm) with a brown-olive-colored plumage, and on the wings, chest and lower neck - thin white strips. Nesters are found in the tropical forests and swamps of Central, South and North America.
Unlike European species, Aram is a crane,eating mollusks, mostly snails. In search of food, they slowly walk in shallow water, lifting their long legs high, peering into the water and, thanks to their wonderful sense of smell, they find it on the bottom. Grabbing a snail, they deftly pull it out of the sink, eat the clam itself, and throw the shell back into the pond.
It is noteworthy that the chicks of arama, on the contrary,eat small snails right along with the sink, swallowing whole. In addition, these cranes consume and vegetable food: grains and seedlings of cereal crops, berries, in North America also cranberries, roots, tubers of various plants. Of other feeds - insects (water and land), small amphibians and mammals, worms - the diet of American aram is quite extensive in comparison with, for example, what the crane-bell in Europe feeds on.
Crane Indian (antigone)
It is the biggest crane in the world - its growth up to180 cm. Color is ash gray or with a blue, the tips of the wings are black, the beak is green, the head, throat and part of the neck have red skin with prickly bristles. Such cranes live in India, Nepal, Pakistan.
Antigone sockets build in the forest or on the openterrain, overgrown with tall grass or bushes, next to the swampy areas. Usually the nest consists of the stems of the plants located on the swamp directly in the water in shallow water or near the pond.
Tubers and bulbs of plants growing in water ornot far from it, a little fish and frogs - that's the list of what the antigone crane feeds on. Most often they walk in shallow water, swarm and dig out from the bottom of various parts of plants.
Unlike other species, the antigone is sedentaryCrane, not migrating with the change of the seasons anywhere from their places. Its number is stable, so it does not cause any problems and questions from biologists.
Crane Australian (Braga)
This crane is very similar in appearance to itsIndian colleague, differs only in a darker coloring and a small bald patch on his head. Because of this similarity, even experienced ornithologists have confused these two species for quite some time.
Not so long ago, the brogal settled on a largethe territory of Australia and the islands of New Guinea, but because of the growth of farms and active land reclamation, the crane was driven out of its habitats. Now there is only a small population of these birds in the coastal regions of Australia.
Nesting cranes-brolgies on marshy lowlands,usually flooded with water and overgrown with tall grass and reeds. The main food: rhizomes and tubers of plants growing in the water and nearby, which the birds dig out from the bottom of the pond. They also eat small fishes, bugs, mollusks and amphibians, like to fly to feed rice and corn fields. All of the above is what the crane-brogue feeds on in Australia.
The name of the crane was received for protruding featherson the head, forming a golden crown. The main color of the plumage is lead gray, the wings in the upper part are white, and the secondary chestnut-brown color. Under the short beak from below is a red "earring" hanging from the skin. The bird is bright and beautiful.
Crowned crane in Africa in marshylowlands, valleys of large rivers and lakes, sometimes they settle near people. Cranes nest in territories strictly guarded with the help of their dances and screams. The main food of the crowned ones is various parts of plants, seeds, small animals (insects, lizards, etc.) - that's what the crane feeds on the African continent.