What were the types of craft in the Middle Ages? Tell me pliz

What were the types of craft in the Middle Ages? Tell me pliz

  1. Spinning
    Weaving
    Tailoring
    Furrier
    Shornoe
    Oven
    Jewelry
    Blacksmithing
    Pottery
    Joinery
    Plotnitskoe
    Shoe
    Tannery
    Cooperative
    Bakery
  2. For a long time mankind knew such crafts as:

    blacksmith's
    potter's
    carpentry
    carpentry
    tailoring
    weaving
    spinning
    furrier's
    saddlery
    baking
    shoemaker
    stove
    tannery
    jewelry

    and many others.

    Things made by professional artisans were more complex and beautiful than those crafted by peasants. But the craftsman, who did not leave the community, had a very narrow market for products; conditions for the development of production in the village were limited. In addition, a significant part of the products as a quitrent took the owner of the patrimony. Therefore, rural artisans left the village and went to places where more customers and buyers could be found.

    The craftsmen, along with the merchants, constituted the main population of the medieval towns that arose near the castles and fortresses, the walls of which could serve as protection in case of danger, around monasteries, where a large number of pilgrims came, near bridges and crossings. The division of labor between town and country developed: the villagers engaged in agriculture, townspeople craft and trade.

    The craft in the medieval city was a small production, based on manual labor. The city artisan was the owner of the tools and at the same time an employee. The main thing-in the workshop was the master usually her master. Besides him, students and apprentices worked in the workshop. The apprentice, who received the salary, was the chief assistant of the master. He could become a master himself and open his own workshop. To do this, he had to withstand a difficult exam: to make a masterpiece on his own funds a sample of the product. The student usually mastered the skill for a period of two to eight years, all the while working for free. Later, he could become an apprentice. The son of the master, who worked as a child in the studio, as a rule, inherited his father's business and became a master himself.

    The craftsmanship developed slowly. But thanks to the training and experience, artisans achieved excellence in their work. Their products were often real works of art. In general, the boundaries between art and craft in the Middle Ages did not exist.

    Artisans of one specialty, who lived in the same city, usually united in a special corporation workshop. The emergence of shops was caused by the desire of artisans to protect their interests, establish control over the production and sale of handicraft products. To create the shop, it was required to get a corresponding charter from the king or seignior.

    At the general meeting the master accepted the regulations of the workshop. Rules of the statute created for all masters the same conditions for the production and sale of products. The charter nullified the competition between the masters of the same shop: he ordered all of them to produce products of a certain type and quality. The shop organization was closely connected with the whole life of the medieval artisan. The shop was at the same time an economic union, a squad of self-defense and a religious brotherhood, which had a special church and its patron saint.

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